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AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VALUE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AN ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Accounting information system has become an important component of successful business and organizations. Borthick and Clara, (1990) supporting the above, stated that accounting information system is vital to all organizations either profit or non-profit oriented. They further opined that there is need for every organization to maintain accounting information system. In the opinion of Wathana, (2004), accounting information system produces more information to ease operations such as planning and control information and performance evaluation. An understanding of Accounting Information System will therefore foster a better understanding of how businesses and organizations are assisted to operate more efficiently and effectively. Accounting information system has to do with any combination of information technology and peoples’ activities that support accounting operations, management and decision making, though in a narrow sense. In a broader sense however, the term accounting information system is used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data and technology that are used for accounting duties. It is equally in this wise that O’Brien, (2003) asserted that, the term do not only refer to information and communication technology that an organization uses but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of  business activities and processes. Furthermore, accounting information system may be understood from the three words that constitute it (Accounting, Information and System). Wilkinson, (1993) identified three components that relate to accounting as; Information System, Language of Business and Source of Financial Information. Secondly, O’Brien identified information as a valuable data processing that provides a basis for making decisions, taking actions and fulfilling legal obligations. Finally, he stressed that a system is an integrated framework within an entity where the framework is focused on a set objectives. Combining the three, Accounting Information System indicates an integrated framework within an entity (such as business entity) that employs physical resources (material, supplies, personnel, equipment, funds) to transform economic data into financial information for conducting the firms’ operations and activities, and providing information concerning the entity to a variety of interested users (O’Brien, 1993). Thomas and Kleiner, (1995) concluded that the combination or interaction between human, technology and techniques knowledge effectively. This research seeks to conduct an empirical analysis of accounting information system in organizations and examine its values in organizational activities and processes.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Existing literature have shown that accounting information system when successfully implemented brings about better decision making by managers, more effective internal control systems, enhances the quality of financial reports and facilitates financial transaction processes (Wathana, 2010). However the studies have not shown whether successful implementation of accounting information system can improve performance measures thereby creating a research gap. Moreover the studies have shown a situation or situations rather in Spanish Enterprises, Chinese Enterprises, Indian Firms etc where economies are well developed. The researchers therefore seeks to bridge the gap so created in the field of accounting information system and also determine whether the values of accounting information system identified in earlier studies are applicable to Nigerian situation, a less developed economy.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

1.  To examine the effect of accounting information system on financial transaction process.

2.  To examine the effect of accounting information system on the quality of financial reports.

3.  To determine whether accounting information system leads to effective internal control systems.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What is the effect of accounting information system on financial transaction process?

2.  What is the effect of accounting information system on the quality of financial reports?

3.  Does accounting information system leads to effective internal control systems?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: Accounting Information System does not facilitate financial transaction process

HA: Accounting Information System does facilitate financial transaction process

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study shall be of immense importance to users of accounting information system such as financial analysis, Financial Accountants, management Accountants, Finance Managers, the Finance General Managers, Chief Operating Officer, Managing Director and Board of Directors within an organization and the Government Agency, External Auditors and Creditors from outside the organization. This will enable them have effective combination of people, Hardware, software, communication network and data resources that collects, transform and disseminate information in an organization hence the emphasis on computer based accounting information system. More so, the study shall be of great importance to students of Accounting and Management as well as other researchers who may be acquainted with the basis of Accounting Information System, its operations and its support for business activities and processes and hence a guide for further investigations.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research work is however limited to accounting information system (AIS) as a specialized area in business and non-business applications. Emphasis is more placed on the empirical evidence that exist in the field.

REFERENCES

Borthick, C.J. and Clara, K.D. (1990): “Exploration for the relationship between Innovation, IT and Performance”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 6, n. 2: 237-252.

Wathana, M. (2004): “Firm performance and AIS alignment in Malaysian SME ́s”, International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, vol. 6, n.4: 241-259.

O’Brien, H. (2003):“Impact of the length of relationships upon the use of Research Institutes by SMEs”, Research Policy, vol. 32, n. 5: 771-788.

Wilkinson, A.(1993):“Representing change: a system model of organizational inertia and capabilities as dynamic accumulation processes”, Simulation Modelling: Practice and theory, vol. 10, n.5-7: 271-296.

Kleiner, L.R. (1999): “Information technology and firm performance: Linking with environmental, strategic and managerial contexts”, Information and Management, vol. 35, n. 1: 43-51.

 

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As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

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CAUTION/WARNING

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That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

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www.easyprojectmaterial.net

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www.worldofnolimit.com

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www.nairaproject.com.ng

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59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

AN APPRAISAL OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES AND PERSONNEL FOR TEACHING PHYSICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ADAMAWA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Poor schooling has proved to be the greatest barrier to political, social and economic transformation in many African countries. School infrastructural facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education. The importance to teaching with provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphasized. Pertaining to the teaching of physics in secondary schools, Infrastructural facilities include equipments and materials that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes good buildings for classrooms and laboratories, laboratory equipments, experiment materials/apparatus, books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom and laboratory, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practicals are arranged (Farrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998).

According to Oni (1992), infrastructural facilities constitute a strategic factor in the functioning of a secondary school system. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any teaching and experimental demonstrations and even other extra-curricular activities. He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high performance. In his words, Farombi (1998) opined that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good schools with professional personnel (quality teachers), learning infrastructures that with such, students may learn with ease thus bringing about good academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities in teaching, Balogun (1982) submitted that no effective science education programme including physics can exist without equipment for teaching. This is because facilities enable the learner to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. In their contribution, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) reiterated that when facilities are provided to meet relative needs of a school system, students will not only have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, but individual students will also learn at their own paces and there is room and necessary equipment for the teacher for further research and constant practice. The net effect of this is increased overall academic performance of the entire students.

In recent times, there has been a growing public anxiety about the poor performance of students in Physics in Nigerian schools. Studies showed that large numbers of students seem to learn very little physics at school, learning tends to be by rote and students find learning of Physics to be difficult (Salau, 1996). The quality of the personnels handling Physics in Nigerian schools has also been questioned over time by parents, science educators, and the general public and even by the government (Okebukola, 1997). Physics teaching in Nigerian schools has been criticized because of the poor performance of Nigerian students in Physics relative to their counterparts in other countries. This is evident from the Second International Science Study in which Nigerian students came second to last in secondary science among the participating countries of the world (STAN, 1992).

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The current situation of Physics teaching and learning in Nigeria is a concern to all including government and the society at large. Research indicates that many students found Physics as a subject to be difficult, boring and not interesting to them (Salau, 1995, 1996). Large class sizes, inadequate funding, insufficient curriculum resources, poor teaching skills and lack of supports for teachers among other factors further limit the quality of Physics teaching and learning in Nigerian schools (Okebukola, 1997). To solve these lingering problems one needs to develop a realistic picture of what is currently happening in the teaching and learning of Physics in Nigerian schools and also to identify the factors that are limiting the quality of personnel training. Furthermore, one needs to develop a reasonable ideal picture for which the nation can strive towards within the existing resource limitations.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives for this study:

1.  To examine if there is adequate infrastructural facilities for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

2.  To examine the quality of personnel teaching Physics in Nigerian senior secondary schools.

3.  To identify the relationship between infrastructure and performance in Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  Are there adequate infrastructural facilities for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria?

2.  What is the quality of personnel teaching Physics in Nigerian senior secondary schools?

3.  What is the relationship between infrastructure and performance in Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

1.  The outcome of this study will educate stakeholders in the education sector and the general public on the state of infrastructural facilities and quality of personel available for the teaching of Physics in the Nigerian Senior secondary schools.

2.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the level infrastructural facility and personnel available for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Ajayi, A.O. and Ogunremi B.A. (1996). Quality Improvement of Teaching, Supervision and Administration in Primary Schools in Ajayi, A.O & Akinwumiju, J.A. (Eds): Personnel Performance and Capacity Building. Ibadan, Nigeria.

Balogun, T. A. (1983). Interest in science and technology education in Nigeria. Paper presented at the 12th International Symposium on Interest in Science and Technology Education, Lagos-Nigeria.

Farombi, J.G. (1998). Resource Concentration, Utilization and Management as Correlates of Students’ Learning outcomes: A study in School Quality in Oyo State. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, university of Ibadan.

Farrant,J. S. (1991). Principles and practice of Education (Tenth Impression Singapore Longman.

Okebukola, P. A. O. (1997). The state of science education in Nigeria. Paper presented at the ELLSA-British Council Primary Science Forum, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Oni, J.O. (1992). Resource and Resource Utilisation as Correlates of School Academic Performance. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan

Salau, M. O. (1995). An analysis of students’ enrolment and performance in mathematics at the senior school certificate level. Journal of Studies in Curriculum, 28-36.

Salau, M. O. (1996). The effect of class size on the achievement of different ability groups in mathematics. Journal of The Science Teachers Association of Nigeria, 31(1&2), 55-61.

STAN. (1992). Raising the standard of performance in public examinations in science, technology and mathematics. Position paper No. 4.Ibadan: STAN

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

Tags:

59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

AN APPRAISAL OF INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES AND PERSONNEL FOR TEACHING PHYSICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ADAMAWA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Poor schooling has proved to be the greatest barrier to political, social and economic transformation in many African countries. School infrastructural facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education. The importance to teaching with provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphasized. Pertaining to the teaching of physics in secondary schools, Infrastructural facilities include equipments and materials that are available to facilitate students learning outcome. It includes good buildings for classrooms and laboratories, laboratory equipments, experiment materials/apparatus, books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom and laboratory, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practicals are arranged (Farrant, 1991 and Farombi, 1998).

According to Oni (1992), infrastructural facilities constitute a strategic factor in the functioning of a secondary school system. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any teaching and experimental demonstrations and even other extra-curricular activities. He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high performance. In his words, Farombi (1998) opined that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good schools with professional personnel (quality teachers), learning infrastructures that with such, students may learn with ease thus bringing about good academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities in teaching, Balogun (1982) submitted that no effective science education programme including physics can exist without equipment for teaching. This is because facilities enable the learner to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes. In their contribution, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (1990) reiterated that when facilities are provided to meet relative needs of a school system, students will not only have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, but individual students will also learn at their own paces and there is room and necessary equipment for the teacher for further research and constant practice. The net effect of this is increased overall academic performance of the entire students.

In recent times, there has been a growing public anxiety about the poor performance of students in Physics in Nigerian schools. Studies showed that large numbers of students seem to learn very little physics at school, learning tends to be by rote and students find learning of Physics to be difficult (Salau, 1996). The quality of the personnels handling Physics in Nigerian schools has also been questioned over time by parents, science educators, and the general public and even by the government (Okebukola, 1997). Physics teaching in Nigerian schools has been criticized because of the poor performance of Nigerian students in Physics relative to their counterparts in other countries. This is evident from the Second International Science Study in which Nigerian students came second to last in secondary science among the participating countries of the world (STAN, 1992).

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The current situation of Physics teaching and learning in Nigeria is a concern to all including government and the society at large. Research indicates that many students found Physics as a subject to be difficult, boring and not interesting to them (Salau, 1995, 1996). Large class sizes, inadequate funding, insufficient curriculum resources, poor teaching skills and lack of supports for teachers among other factors further limit the quality of Physics teaching and learning in Nigerian schools (Okebukola, 1997). To solve these lingering problems one needs to develop a realistic picture of what is currently happening in the teaching and learning of Physics in Nigerian schools and also to identify the factors that are limiting the quality of personnel training. Furthermore, one needs to develop a reasonable ideal picture for which the nation can strive towards within the existing resource limitations.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives for this study:

1.  To examine if there is adequate infrastructural facilities for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

2.  To examine the quality of personnel teaching Physics in Nigerian senior secondary schools.

3.  To identify the relationship between infrastructure and performance in Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  Are there adequate infrastructural facilities for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria?

2.  What is the quality of personnel teaching Physics in Nigerian senior secondary schools?

3.  What is the relationship between infrastructure and performance in Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

1.  The outcome of this study will educate stakeholders in the education sector and the general public on the state of infrastructural facilities and quality of personel available for the teaching of Physics in the Nigerian Senior secondary schools.

2.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the level infrastructural facility and personnel available for teaching Physics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Ajayi, A.O. and Ogunremi B.A. (1996). Quality Improvement of Teaching, Supervision and Administration in Primary Schools in Ajayi, A.O & Akinwumiju, J.A. (Eds): Personnel Performance and Capacity Building. Ibadan, Nigeria.

Balogun, T. A. (1983). Interest in science and technology education in Nigeria. Paper presented at the 12th International Symposium on Interest in Science and Technology Education, Lagos-Nigeria.

Farombi, J.G. (1998). Resource Concentration, Utilization and Management as Correlates of Students’ Learning outcomes: A study in School Quality in Oyo State. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, university of Ibadan.

Farrant,J. S. (1991). Principles and practice of Education (Tenth Impression Singapore Longman.

Okebukola, P. A. O. (1997). The state of science education in Nigeria. Paper presented at the ELLSA-British Council Primary Science Forum, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Oni, J.O. (1992). Resource and Resource Utilisation as Correlates of School Academic Performance. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan

Salau, M. O. (1995). An analysis of students’ enrolment and performance in mathematics at the senior school certificate level. Journal of Studies in Curriculum, 28-36.

Salau, M. O. (1996). The effect of class size on the achievement of different ability groups in mathematics. Journal of The Science Teachers Association of Nigeria, 31(1&2), 55-61.

STAN. (1992). Raising the standard of performance in public examinations in science, technology and mathematics. Position paper No. 4.Ibadan: STAN

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

Tags:

59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AND ITS ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF ZENITH BANK PLC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Listed companies use financial statements as one of the major medium of communication with their stakeholders. Therefore, stock market regulators and accounting standards setters try to improve the quality of financial statements in order to increase the transparency level in financial reporting. (Vishnani 2008).

Accounting plays a significant role within the concept of generating and communicating wealth of the companies. Financial statements still remain the most important source of externally possible information on companies

Financial information is essential in making sound investment decisions and it will reduce the informational irregularity problem between the firm’s managers and the investors. (Hossain 2004).

Though the investors use non financial information in order to make investment decisions, still conventional investors give more weight to financial information. According to the survey done by the Bosten College (2007), 62% of respondents favour financial information and only 38% favour the use of non financial information for investment decisions.

Until approximately 42 years ago no arguments were encounter on relevance of Accounting Information. (Dung 2010). But, recent empirical studies explored that Accounting Information in published financial statements lost their relevance over the period of time. (Ball and Brown, 2009).

An understanding of the accounting information is that it covers information that is used to prepare financial statements which report the results and financial position of a business to the decision makers. (Dung 2010).

Owners and management use this information to judge about the results of business operations and make decision about their management. External users like creditors, suppliers, tax authorities also use accounting information for their decision making, i.e. judging whether the business will be able to return loans, pay for goods sold, whether taxes are paid correctly, etc.

To be useful and used accounting information must be compliant with fundamental accounting assumptions and conventions.

Accounting information has to be:

·         Fair (correct) – present fairly and correctly results of operations and financial position of the business

·         Consistent – presentation and classification of items in the financial statements must be the same from one accounting period to the next

·         Prudent – accounting for certain items requires making judgments, these must be made with prudence to ensure assets or income are not overstated, liabilities or expenses are not understated

·         Material – material items must be disclosed separately, immaterial items can be aggregated into groups

·         Relevant – accounting information must be useful assisting users in their decision making process

·         Reliable – free from material mistakes and errors

·         Complete – presented without omission of material information

·         Comparable – providing ability to compare information through time and with other entities

·         Understandable – users without specific accounting knowledge must understand the accounting information

To ensure the above characteristics each business must have people, accounting procedures, software to process information and control system to control all the process. All these means are called accounting information system.

Every organization needs accounting information for the proper management of the organizational activities and decision making process. To be able to fully access and examine the relevance of accounting information in the management of organizations.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The following are that statement of problems for this study:

1.      Providing a solution to the problems that exist between accounting information and decision making process.

2.      There is the problem of the dependence of investor’s decision making on accounting information. Without confidence in the existing accounting information of a particular organization, it will negatively affect investor’s decision making.

3.      There is also the problem of determining how relevant are accounting information to the bank, investors or the government.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are as follows:

1.     To assess the relationship between accounting information and decision making

2.     To examine the relevance of accounting Information on Investors decisions.

3.     How it is relevant to the bank, investors and the government.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION

The following are the research question of this study to help the research generate more research findings.

1.     Is there significant relationship between accounting information and management decision making?

2.     Does the decision of the investors to invest in stock depend on the available accounting information?

3.     Are the available Accounting Information in commercial banks so reliable in such a way that investors will have confidence in it?

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Based on the foregoing, the following research hypotheses formulated will be empirically tested and result gotten will serve as a spring board for recommendations. From the hypothesis below it is clear that there is no relationship existing between the Null hypothesis and the Alternative hypothesis. These are as follows:

1.     Ho: there is no significant relationship between accounting information and           management decision making Hi: there is significant relationship between accounting information and management decision making

2.     Ho: the decision of the investors to invest in stock does not depend on the available accounting information of the organization in question. Hi: the decision of the investors to invest in stock depends on the available accounting information of the organization in question.

3.     Ho: The available Accounting Information in commercial banks are not reliable in such a way that investors will have confidence in it? Hi: The available Accounting Information in commercial banks are reliable in such a way that investors will have confidence in it?

1.5 IMPORTANCE/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The researcher now discovered that it will be reasonable to encourage Nigeria banking sector to introduce a proper and vital accounting information system so that the general public can have confidence in the available accounting information. Without confidence in accounting information as a whole, investors will not take their investment decisions. This shows that investors generally not focus on short term capital gain or irrational for unusual events. Therefore, accounting standards setters should enhance the quality of the financial reporting in order to increase the value relevance of accounting information.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research project basically covers such area as accounting information as well as financial statement, it relevance to general public in the area of business management and investment decision making. The area covered in the research work is limited to Zenith Bank Plc, Agbor Road Branch, Benin City which was used as a case study.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

During the conduct of this research work, some factors posed as constraints to the determined efforts of the research to carryout the research study to such a depth and in such a manner that it ought to have been carried out judging from its relevance to management, such factors include:

a.     Management Restriction: it’s no doubt that management usually refused to allow access to information that are considered very confidential in nature like detail information of the organizational corporate profile. As a result of the restrictions the researcher was able to work with only the information that was accessible.

b.     Time Constraint: Time is also another factor tat acts as hindrances in carrying out this research study. This is as a result of the fact that other things were still being attended to in the course of carrying out this research work.

c.      Financial Constraint: money also acts as a problem in the conduct of the research work. Traveling expenses were incurred in getting the materials for the research work. Also incurred, were expenses for the typing and distribution, building and a lot of other expenses.

1.8 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

A survey of individuals in this study involves with accounting information and its role in the management of business organization which was conducted in order to obtain relevant data for the study. In order to obtain demographic information about organizations as regards accounting information, questionnaires were sent to Zenith Bank plc, which is the primary source of data used for this research work. The purpose is to get the organization’s views on a number of issues regarding accounting information and its role in the management of business organization. In addition, was the secondary source of data which was considered most helpful in this study. The secondary sources from which data was collected include: textbooks from library, and different websites on the internet.

All the information gathered will be analyzed by the use of tabulation that is arranged in sub-topics according to their relevance to the hypothesis formulated before. Table and simple percentage will be used to carefully analyze the data collected. After each table a brief explanation would following to understand fully the positive and negative responses of the respondents. Thereafter, hypothesis will be tested based on the data collected and analyzed.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Accounting Information System – An accounting information system (AIS) is a system of collection, storage and processing of financial and accounting data that is used by decision makers.

Accounting: According to James Ilaboya 2005, accounting is the fundamental processes of developing theories for the discipline of accounting. And the primary aim of accounting theory has been to provide a basis for the predication and interpretation of accounting behaviours and events.

Accountant: An accountant is a practitioner of accountancy or accounting, which is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and others make decisions about allocating resources. Hadi (2004).

Efficiency: This is a fact of performance which relate to the rate of resource utilization (ie cost incurred in the course of the work. Ovuorie (1997).

Financial Accounting: According to James Ilaboya 2005, Financial Accounting is the fundamental processes of developing theories for the discipline of accounting. And the primary aim of accounting theory has been to provide a basis for the predication and interpretation of accounting behaviours and events.

Policies: Koontz Donnell and Weihrich (1980) define policies as a general statement or understanding which guide thinking in decision making; the essence of policies is the existence of discretion, within certain limits in guiding decision making.

Ethnics – rules, principles or order governing a profession.

Leader – person in authority (Head of a country or organization).

Management – the art of running and controlling a business or similar organization. According to Fubara (1986) views management as an activity carried on in an environment that comprise of resources in capital and human, having alternative uses.

Dishonesty – lack of trust and intending to deceive people.

Measure – steps, methods to control situation.

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

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(2)     Email Address

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(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

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CAUTION/WARNING

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That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

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59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AND ITS ROLE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF ZENITH BANK PLC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Listed companies use financial statements as one of the major medium of communication with their stakeholders. Therefore, stock market regulators and accounting standards setters try to improve the quality of financial statements in order to increase the transparency level in financial reporting. (Vishnani 2008).

Accounting plays a significant role within the concept of generating and communicating wealth of the companies. Financial statements still remain the most important source of externally possible information on companies

Financial information is essential in making sound investment decisions and it will reduce the informational irregularity problem between the firm’s managers and the investors. (Hossain 2004).

Though the investors use non financial information in order to make investment decisions, still conventional investors give more weight to financial information. According to the survey done by the Bosten College (2007), 62% of respondents favour financial information and only 38% favour the use of non financial information for investment decisions.

Until approximately 42 years ago no arguments were encounter on relevance of Accounting Information. (Dung 2010). But, recent empirical studies explored that Accounting Information in published financial statements lost their relevance over the period of time. (Ball and Brown, 2009).

An understanding of the accounting information is that it covers information that is used to prepare financial statements which report the results and financial position of a business to the decision makers. (Dung 2010).

Owners and management use this information to judge about the results of business operations and make decision about their management. External users like creditors, suppliers, tax authorities also use accounting information for their decision making, i.e. judging whether the business will be able to return loans, pay for goods sold, whether taxes are paid correctly, etc.

To be useful and used accounting information must be compliant with fundamental accounting assumptions and conventions.

Accounting information has to be:

·         Fair (correct) – present fairly and correctly results of operations and financial position of the business

·         Consistent – presentation and classification of items in the financial statements must be the same from one accounting period to the next

·         Prudent – accounting for certain items requires making judgments, these must be made with prudence to ensure assets or income are not overstated, liabilities or expenses are not understated

·         Material – material items must be disclosed separately, immaterial items can be aggregated into groups

·         Relevant – accounting information must be useful assisting users in their decision making process

·         Reliable – free from material mistakes and errors

·         Complete – presented without omission of material information

·         Comparable – providing ability to compare information through time and with other entities

·         Understandable – users without specific accounting knowledge must understand the accounting information

To ensure the above characteristics each business must have people, accounting procedures, software to process information and control system to control all the process. All these means are called accounting information system.

Every organization needs accounting information for the proper management of the organizational activities and decision making process. To be able to fully access and examine the relevance of accounting information in the management of organizations.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The following are that statement of problems for this study:

1.      Providing a solution to the problems that exist between accounting information and decision making process.

2.      There is the problem of the dependence of investor’s decision making on accounting information. Without confidence in the existing accounting information of a particular organization, it will negatively affect investor’s decision making.

3.      There is also the problem of determining how relevant are accounting information to the bank, investors or the government.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are as follows:

1.     To assess the relationship between accounting information and decision making

2.     To examine the relevance of accounting Information on Investors decisions.

3.     How it is relevant to the bank, investors and the government.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION

The following are the research question of this study to help the research generate more research findings.

1.     Is there significant relationship between accounting information and management decision making?

2.     Does the decision of the investors to invest in stock depend on the available accounting information?

3.     Are the available Accounting Information in commercial banks so reliable in such a way that investors will have confidence in it?

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Based on the foregoing, the following research hypotheses formulated will be empirically tested and result gotten will serve as a spring board for recommendations. From the hypothesis below it is clear that there is no relationship existing between the Null hypothesis and the Alternative hypothesis. These are as follows:

1.     Ho: there is no significant relationship between accounting information and           management decision making Hi: there is significant relationship between accounting information and management decision making

2.     Ho: the decision of the investors to invest in stock does not depend on the available accounting information of the organization in question. Hi: the decision of the investors to invest in stock depends on the available accounting information of the organization in question.

3.     Ho: The available Accounting Information in commercial banks are not reliable in such a way that investors will have confidence in it? Hi: The available Accounting Information in commercial banks are reliable in such a way that investors will have confidence in it?

1.5 IMPORTANCE/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The researcher now discovered that it will be reasonable to encourage Nigeria banking sector to introduce a proper and vital accounting information system so that the general public can have confidence in the available accounting information. Without confidence in accounting information as a whole, investors will not take their investment decisions. This shows that investors generally not focus on short term capital gain or irrational for unusual events. Therefore, accounting standards setters should enhance the quality of the financial reporting in order to increase the value relevance of accounting information.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research project basically covers such area as accounting information as well as financial statement, it relevance to general public in the area of business management and investment decision making. The area covered in the research work is limited to Zenith Bank Plc, Agbor Road Branch, Benin City which was used as a case study.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

During the conduct of this research work, some factors posed as constraints to the determined efforts of the research to carryout the research study to such a depth and in such a manner that it ought to have been carried out judging from its relevance to management, such factors include:

a.     Management Restriction: it’s no doubt that management usually refused to allow access to information that are considered very confidential in nature like detail information of the organizational corporate profile. As a result of the restrictions the researcher was able to work with only the information that was accessible.

b.     Time Constraint: Time is also another factor tat acts as hindrances in carrying out this research study. This is as a result of the fact that other things were still being attended to in the course of carrying out this research work.

c.      Financial Constraint: money also acts as a problem in the conduct of the research work. Traveling expenses were incurred in getting the materials for the research work. Also incurred, were expenses for the typing and distribution, building and a lot of other expenses.

1.8 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY

A survey of individuals in this study involves with accounting information and its role in the management of business organization which was conducted in order to obtain relevant data for the study. In order to obtain demographic information about organizations as regards accounting information, questionnaires were sent to Zenith Bank plc, which is the primary source of data used for this research work. The purpose is to get the organization’s views on a number of issues regarding accounting information and its role in the management of business organization. In addition, was the secondary source of data which was considered most helpful in this study. The secondary sources from which data was collected include: textbooks from library, and different websites on the internet.

All the information gathered will be analyzed by the use of tabulation that is arranged in sub-topics according to their relevance to the hypothesis formulated before. Table and simple percentage will be used to carefully analyze the data collected. After each table a brief explanation would following to understand fully the positive and negative responses of the respondents. Thereafter, hypothesis will be tested based on the data collected and analyzed.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Accounting Information System – An accounting information system (AIS) is a system of collection, storage and processing of financial and accounting data that is used by decision makers.

Accounting: According to James Ilaboya 2005, accounting is the fundamental processes of developing theories for the discipline of accounting. And the primary aim of accounting theory has been to provide a basis for the predication and interpretation of accounting behaviours and events.

Accountant: An accountant is a practitioner of accountancy or accounting, which is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and others make decisions about allocating resources. Hadi (2004).

Efficiency: This is a fact of performance which relate to the rate of resource utilization (ie cost incurred in the course of the work. Ovuorie (1997).

Financial Accounting: According to James Ilaboya 2005, Financial Accounting is the fundamental processes of developing theories for the discipline of accounting. And the primary aim of accounting theory has been to provide a basis for the predication and interpretation of accounting behaviours and events.

Policies: Koontz Donnell and Weihrich (1980) define policies as a general statement or understanding which guide thinking in decision making; the essence of policies is the existence of discretion, within certain limits in guiding decision making.

Ethnics – rules, principles or order governing a profession.

Leader – person in authority (Head of a country or organization).

Management – the art of running and controlling a business or similar organization. According to Fubara (1986) views management as an activity carried on in an environment that comprise of resources in capital and human, having alternative uses.

Dishonesty – lack of trust and intending to deceive people.

Measure – steps, methods to control situation.

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

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59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

A SURVEY OF RELEVANCE OF BUSINESS EDUCATION PROGRAM TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Education is obviously the basic instrument of economic growth and technological advancement of any society. It is in recognition of this fact that governments commit immense resources to ensure the provision of education for their citizens and also tailored their policies towards ensuring that it is made accessible to the generality of their citizenry (Oyebade et al., 2008). However, business education is an essential element of this general education. It is concerned with the impartation of business orientation and knowledge for personal and national development.

Business education involves teaching students the fundamentals, concepts, theories and processes of business. To Okoli (2010), business education is an important part of the general education which emphasizes on skills and competencies acquisition for use in offices and business related occupations.

Similarly, Nwanewezi (2010) describes business education as encompassing education for office occupations, business teaching, business administration and economic understanding. In all, Abdulkadir (2011) noted that one remarkable important characteristic of business education program is that, its products can function independently as self-employed and employers of labor. To this end, the tenet of business education embraces basic education for teaching career, entrepreneurship, business understanding, office environment and vocational practices.

Education in this field occurs at several levels, including primary, secondary and higher education, with the greatest activity in the later. However, Igboke (2005) enumerated the following as the objectives of business education at all levels of education:

·        To develop basic skills for personal use in the future

·        To acquire the basic knowledge and skills of business education

·        To relate the knowledge and skills acquired to national development

·        To develop basic skills in office occupation

·        To provide the needed background for teaching in business subjects

·        To prepare students for further training in business studies

·        To provide orientation and basic skills with which to start a life of work for those who may not undergo further training

For education to really serve as a veritable vehicle for socioeconomic growth and development as well as for the actualization of these lofty objectives of business education in tandem, educational institutions and its systems must function optimally in relation to its set standards.

Historically, business education did not come about in Nigeria through government, but through the individual initiative of a few Nigerian entrepreneurs. Such individuals were quick to realize the importance of business education not only to their personal, but also to national economic growth and development. As a matter of fact, prior to Nigeria’s independence and 10 years after, business teacher education, like other vocational and technical education disciplines, was not given any thought in Nigerian teacher education curricula. This is not to say that the Colonial educational administrators did not recognize the importance of this form of teacher education. As reported by Ekpenyong (1992), some form of business and technical teacher education programme was introduced in the curricula of Higher College, Yaba (1932-47), and of Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology (1954-61).

Business education exposes students to different ways of being innovative, It also facilitates Job Competence, as well as development of understanding for vocational opportunities available in the field of business. Entrepreneurship without adequate education, knowledge and skills, usually leads to failure. Judging by the figures that are coming out of the Education Ministry. In the last few years, at least 60% of graduates are not able to get employment immediately which does not encourage economic growth (Lawal 2005). Because of that, people go into one entrepreneurial venture or another, but unfortunately, they have not been adequately prepared to face the attendant challenges in business. Now it has become necessary to incorporate Business education into the curriculum in order to prepare our graduates for self-employment.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Business Education is a type of training which, while playing its part in the achievement of the general aims of education on any given level, has its primary objective as the preparation of people to enter into a career, to render efficient service and to advance from their present level of employment to higher levels which always have significance effect on the economic development (Osuala 2003). Basic Business Education affords to every individual an opportunity to develop the skills, abilities and understanding that will enable him to handle competently his personal business affairs; to develop an understanding of the vocational opportunity available in the broad field of business and to assume his citizenship responsibilities through enlightened participation in, as well as an understanding and appreciation of the business system (Osuala 2003). Furthermore, Basic Business Education is the broad area of knowledge that deals with the economy. It identifies and explains the role of business as an economic institution and provides content and experience that prepare the individual for effective participation as a citizen and consumer. The researcher is examining the relevance of business education on the economic development of Nigeria.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

1.  To examine the relevance of Business education program on economic development of Nigeria.

2.  To examine how the Business education program in Nigeria is operated.

3.  To determine the relationship between Business education program and economic development of Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What is the relevance of Business education program on economic development of Nigeria?

2.  How is the Business education program in Nigeria operated?

3.  What is the relationship between Business education program and economic development of Nigeria?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is no significant relationship between Business education program and economic development of Nigeria

HA: There is significant relationship between Business education program and economic development of Nigeria

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

1.  Results from this study will educate the government of Nigeria, stakeholders in the business sector on the relevance of business education on the economic development of Nigeria.

2.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study on a survey on the relevance of business education program to economic development of Nigeria will cover the Curriculum of business education from primary to tertiary education level in Nigeria with the view of identifying the influence on the Nigeria economic development.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Abdulkadir, A.A., 2011. The role of entrepreneurship education in empowering Nigerian youths. Bus Edu. J., 8(1): 14-22.

Igboke, S.A., 2005. Business Education: Principles and Methods. Jones Communication Publishers, Enugu.

Lawal, S.S., 2005. The need to improve teacher quality in business education programme in Nigerian universities. Int. J. Edu. Res., 11(1): 42-51.

Nwanewezi, M.C., 2010. Problems in business education research in ICT era as perceived by business educators. Bus. Edu. J., 7(2): 46-54.

Okoli, B.E., 2010. A case for entrenchment of ICT literacy in the business education programme. J. Voc. Adult Edu., 7(1): 82-87.

Oyebade, S.A., S.A. Oladipo and J.A. Adetoro, 2008. Determinants and Strategies for Quality Assurance in Nigerian University Education. Retrieved from: http://herp-net.org, (Accessed on: August 4, 2012).

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

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59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

A STATISTICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ COURSE OF STUDY AND THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARDS EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF FINAL YEAR STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN).

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.  Background of the study

Educational development in Nigeria has over the period been treated with kid gloves. For a nation to be able to compete favorably with its contemporaries, a lot has to be done and invested in educating its citizenry. For Nigeria as a country to be judged educationally developed, a lot has to be done and this should start from the mindset of our youths as the development of education in Nigeria has to be sustained by this vibrant age grade in other to make a lasting impression on the fabrics of the nation. Educational development in Nigeria has to be a collective responsibility in other to realize this dream. Youths and adults must see it as a tool for economic development which must not be treated with kid gloves. The more interested our future leaders are in educational development the less the illiteracy rate in Nigeria. Over the period, Nigeria has witnessed a slow but steady rise in educational development spanning from the pre-colonial to the post-colonial dispensation. Our students are a principal agent in this onus task of educational development in Nigeria. Nigeria has made considerable progress in the domain of education. The educational system in the country is supervised by the state. There are 27 federal and state-owned polytechnics in Nigeria (Wikipedia, 2012). The first 6 years of primary education are mandatory in Nigeria. Nigeria is making a steady progress in the development of education. Many universities and schools have been established by the state. However, much still needs to be done.Primary education in Nigeria is in the native language but brings in English in the third year (Akpan 2011). Higher Education has developed considerably over the years, which has resulted in a healthy literacy rate. For educational to be properly developed in Nigeria, our youths especially our undergraduates in the various institutions of higher learning must imbibe the culture or must be willing to give back to the educational sector by going back to the classrooms to assist. Though this may have been partially achieved by the compulsory national service where corp members are being deployed to the schools but this over the period has not yielded its desired result owing to the fact that they do not find the educational system in Nigeria attractive and entertaining. In other to minimize brain drain or capital flight in the educational sector in the country, government has that prerogative to ensure that the educational system is made as attractive as possible as this would help develop education in Nigeria which would in turn help us compete with our contemporaries all over the world.

1.2.  Statement of the general problem

Despite the recent development in the educational sector In Nigeria, some pressing issues have been a re occurring decimal in the problems surrounding educational development in Nigeria. Our youths who should be at the front burner in the nations development of the educational sector has suddenly grown cold in their quest for a better educational system and sector.  The near stagnant nature of the educational sector has had its negative effect on other sectors of the economy. This malady has equally led to the drastic rise in terrorism as witnessed in some part of the country. All these and other unmentioned over bearing consequences has led us to this study in knowing the real causes behind the lack of interest of the youths in helping to develop education in Nigeria.

1.3.  Objectives of the study

The following are the objectives of this study:

Ø  To know the relationship between students course of study and their attitude towards educational development in Nigeria.

Ø To know the real issues militating against educational development in Nigeria.

Ø To suggest ways of improving educational development in Nigeria.

Ø To know the mindset of the youths towards the nature of the educational sector in Nigeria.

1.4.  Research questions

1.  Is the educational sector in Nigeria developed?

2.  How important is the educational sector in Nigeria.

3.  Do students generally love to be employed into the educational sector in Nigeria?

4.  Would you willingly want to be a stakeholder in the educational sector in country?

5.  Has the educational sector improved overtime in Nigeria?

6.  What are the ways the educational system can be made attractive to the youths?

1.5.  Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses will be tested to guide this study;

1. H0: there is no significant relationship between the course of study of students and their perception towards educational development in Nigeria.

H1: there is a significant relationship between the course of study of students and their perception towards educational development in Nigeria.

2.       H0: poor educational development does not influence the general economy of Nigeria.

H1: poor educational development influences the general economy of Nigeria.

1.6.  Significance of the study

The following are the significance of this study:

Ø This study will unravel the unique relationship between the discipline of Nigeria’s undergraduates and their attitude or perception towards educational development.

Ø This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic

Ø This study would also suggest ways of making the educational sector more attractive to youths to help boost its development.

1.7.  Scope of the study

This study is on the relationship between undergraduates’ course of study and their perception towards educational development in Nigeria.

 

1.8.  Limitations of the study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9.  Definition of terms

Development: an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation.

Education: the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.

REFERENCES

AKPAN, E. (2011), “Education and the crisis of the Nigerian polity: Keynote address,”in Education for sustainable democracy: The Nigeria Experience.  Ed. AdieleAfigbo, Calabar: University of Calabar Press.

Ajakeye, G.( 1982). Questions and answers on art and crafts for teachers: Grade II Certificate Examination. Ekiti, Nigeria: Omolaya Press.

Ajibade, B. and N. Elemi (2012), “The Importance of Visual illustrations in Recommended Primary and Secondary School textbooks in Calabar,” Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(1), 161 – 170.

Ajibade, B. and I. Lawson (2003),  “The limitations of teaching and learning fine and applied arts at tertiary level in Cross River State,”Global Journal of Educational Research, 2(1&2), 27 – 32.

Ajibade, B., B. Enamhe and W. Oloidi (2011),   “Is fine arts inevitable requisite for bachelor’s degree in visual arts?: Notes from the admission policy of a Nigerian university,” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 203 – 212.

Aniakor, Chike C. (2001), “Culture and tourism as aid to development in Nigeria,” Nigeria Magazine.

Enamhe, B. and C. Echeta (2010), “Drawing as an instrument of professional excellence in visual arts: Problems and prospects,” Global Journal of Social Sciences, 9(1), 83 – 86.

Enamhe, B. and E. Echeta (2007), “Visual arts: The hub in the wheel of communication,” Global Journal of Humanities, 6(1), 7 – 10.

Enamhe, B. and C. Echeta (2001), “Barriers to understanding fine arts,” Journal of Educational Issues (JEI), 3, 7 – 14.

National Planning Commission (May 2007). National economic empowerment and development strategy 2 (NEEDS 2). Abuja, Nigeria: National Government Publication.

Schofield, H. ( 1981).  The philosophy of educationAn introduction. London: Unwin Educational Books.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004).The national policy on education (NPE). Abuja: Ministry of Education.

Ukpong, E. (2004),“Integrating education into Nigerian national development strategies,”in Education for Sustainable Democracy: The Nigerian Experience. Ed. AdieleAfigbo, Calabar: University of Calabar Press.

Uzoagba, I. ( 1982). Understanding arts in general education.  Onitsha: Africana Press.

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

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59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

A STATISTICAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS’ COURSE OF STUDY AND THEIR ATTITUDE TOWARDS EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF FINAL YEAR STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN).

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.  Background of the study

Educational development in Nigeria has over the period been treated with kid gloves. For a nation to be able to compete favorably with its contemporaries, a lot has to be done and invested in educating its citizenry. For Nigeria as a country to be judged educationally developed, a lot has to be done and this should start from the mindset of our youths as the development of education in Nigeria has to be sustained by this vibrant age grade in other to make a lasting impression on the fabrics of the nation. Educational development in Nigeria has to be a collective responsibility in other to realize this dream. Youths and adults must see it as a tool for economic development which must not be treated with kid gloves. The more interested our future leaders are in educational development the less the illiteracy rate in Nigeria. Over the period, Nigeria has witnessed a slow but steady rise in educational development spanning from the pre-colonial to the post-colonial dispensation. Our students are a principal agent in this onus task of educational development in Nigeria. Nigeria has made considerable progress in the domain of education. The educational system in the country is supervised by the state. There are 27 federal and state-owned polytechnics in Nigeria (Wikipedia, 2012). The first 6 years of primary education are mandatory in Nigeria. Nigeria is making a steady progress in the development of education. Many universities and schools have been established by the state. However, much still needs to be done.Primary education in Nigeria is in the native language but brings in English in the third year (Akpan 2011). Higher Education has developed considerably over the years, which has resulted in a healthy literacy rate. For educational to be properly developed in Nigeria, our youths especially our undergraduates in the various institutions of higher learning must imbibe the culture or must be willing to give back to the educational sector by going back to the classrooms to assist. Though this may have been partially achieved by the compulsory national service where corp members are being deployed to the schools but this over the period has not yielded its desired result owing to the fact that they do not find the educational system in Nigeria attractive and entertaining. In other to minimize brain drain or capital flight in the educational sector in the country, government has that prerogative to ensure that the educational system is made as attractive as possible as this would help develop education in Nigeria which would in turn help us compete with our contemporaries all over the world.

1.2.  Statement of the general problem

Despite the recent development in the educational sector In Nigeria, some pressing issues have been a re occurring decimal in the problems surrounding educational development in Nigeria. Our youths who should be at the front burner in the nations development of the educational sector has suddenly grown cold in their quest for a better educational system and sector.  The near stagnant nature of the educational sector has had its negative effect on other sectors of the economy. This malady has equally led to the drastic rise in terrorism as witnessed in some part of the country. All these and other unmentioned over bearing consequences has led us to this study in knowing the real causes behind the lack of interest of the youths in helping to develop education in Nigeria.

1.3.  Objectives of the study

The following are the objectives of this study:

Ø  To know the relationship between students course of study and their attitude towards educational development in Nigeria.

Ø To know the real issues militating against educational development in Nigeria.

Ø To suggest ways of improving educational development in Nigeria.

Ø To know the mindset of the youths towards the nature of the educational sector in Nigeria.

1.4.  Research questions

1.  Is the educational sector in Nigeria developed?

2.  How important is the educational sector in Nigeria.

3.  Do students generally love to be employed into the educational sector in Nigeria?

4.  Would you willingly want to be a stakeholder in the educational sector in country?

5.  Has the educational sector improved overtime in Nigeria?

6.  What are the ways the educational system can be made attractive to the youths?

1.5.  Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses will be tested to guide this study;

1. H0: there is no significant relationship between the course of study of students and their perception towards educational development in Nigeria.

H1: there is a significant relationship between the course of study of students and their perception towards educational development in Nigeria.

2.       H0: poor educational development does not influence the general economy of Nigeria.

H1: poor educational development influences the general economy of Nigeria.

1.6.  Significance of the study

The following are the significance of this study:

Ø This study will unravel the unique relationship between the discipline of Nigeria’s undergraduates and their attitude or perception towards educational development.

Ø This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic

Ø This study would also suggest ways of making the educational sector more attractive to youths to help boost its development.

1.7.  Scope of the study

This study is on the relationship between undergraduates’ course of study and their perception towards educational development in Nigeria.

 

1.8.  Limitations of the study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9.  Definition of terms

Development: an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation.

Education: the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.

REFERENCES

AKPAN, E. (2011), “Education and the crisis of the Nigerian polity: Keynote address,”in Education for sustainable democracy: The Nigeria Experience.  Ed. AdieleAfigbo, Calabar: University of Calabar Press.

Ajakeye, G.( 1982). Questions and answers on art and crafts for teachers: Grade II Certificate Examination. Ekiti, Nigeria: Omolaya Press.

Ajibade, B. and N. Elemi (2012), “The Importance of Visual illustrations in Recommended Primary and Secondary School textbooks in Calabar,” Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(1), 161 – 170.

Ajibade, B. and I. Lawson (2003),  “The limitations of teaching and learning fine and applied arts at tertiary level in Cross River State,”Global Journal of Educational Research, 2(1&2), 27 – 32.

Ajibade, B., B. Enamhe and W. Oloidi (2011),   “Is fine arts inevitable requisite for bachelor’s degree in visual arts?: Notes from the admission policy of a Nigerian university,” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 203 – 212.

Aniakor, Chike C. (2001), “Culture and tourism as aid to development in Nigeria,” Nigeria Magazine.

Enamhe, B. and C. Echeta (2010), “Drawing as an instrument of professional excellence in visual arts: Problems and prospects,” Global Journal of Social Sciences, 9(1), 83 – 86.

Enamhe, B. and E. Echeta (2007), “Visual arts: The hub in the wheel of communication,” Global Journal of Humanities, 6(1), 7 – 10.

Enamhe, B. and C. Echeta (2001), “Barriers to understanding fine arts,” Journal of Educational Issues (JEI), 3, 7 – 14.

National Planning Commission (May 2007). National economic empowerment and development strategy 2 (NEEDS 2). Abuja, Nigeria: National Government Publication.

Schofield, H. ( 1981).  The philosophy of educationAn introduction. London: Unwin Educational Books.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004).The national policy on education (NPE). Abuja: Ministry of Education.

Ukpong, E. (2004),“Integrating education into Nigerian national development strategies,”in Education for Sustainable Democracy: The Nigerian Experience. Ed. AdieleAfigbo, Calabar: University of Calabar Press.

Uzoagba, I. ( 1982). Understanding arts in general education.  Onitsha: Africana Press.

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

Tags:

59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

A REGRESSION ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF SMOKING, LEVEL OF EXERCISE, WEIGHT ON MEDICAL COST. (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTER OWERRI)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

The increase in the number of people who are ill in the various health establishments has risen geometrically overtime. Most of these illnesses may be as a result of unhealthy lifestyles and habits. Amongst this various unhealthy lifestyles and habits are smoking, lacks of exercise, weight, poor dietary just to mention but a few. In Nigeria specifically, a lot has been said about smoking and lack of exercise. Smokers as they say are liable to die young, though a lot of publicity has gone out to this regard, most smokers have rather not taken heed to this meaning but have rather seen it as a normal jingle without really pondering over it them to make changes in their life styles and bad habits.

Lack of exercise “as deadly as smoking” is now causing as many deaths as smoking in Nigeria and across the world.This has also contributed to the unprecedented rise in illness across Nigeria.

Strong evidence shows that lack of exercise which leads to physical inactivity increases the risk of many major adverse health conditions including:

Death (from any cause), coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, metabolic syndrome (including obesity and abnormal blood cholesterol levels), breast and colon cancer, depression etc.

It estimated that overall, physical inactivity which is caused by lack of exercise caused more than 5.3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008 which Nigeria is not excluded. The researchers suggest this is equivalent to the 5 million deaths attributed to smoking in 2000 (Kingsley 2012: 42).

It is generally believed that a regular exercise helps to

·        reduce the risk of falling ill

·        controls your weight

·        Improve your mental health and mood

·         Improve your ability to do daily activities

·        Increase your chances of living longer, etc.

There may also be a relationship between the weight of a person and the propensity to fall ill. This study helps to explore those unique relationship between the various parameters mentioned earlier in this study.

1.2. Aims and objectives of the study

The following are the objectives of the study:

1.  To know if there is a relationship between smokers and their weight.

2.  To study the impact of smoking and lack of exercise on health conditions of patients.

3.  To know the nature of relationship between smoking, weight, level of exercise on the medical cost of patients.

4.  To study the relationship between weight and health care cost of patients.

1.3. Significance of the study

The importance of this study seeks to unveil the impact of smoking, level of exercise, and weight on medical cost of patients in Nigeria. With the view of advising the generality of Nigeria based on the statistical discoveries made from the study.

This study also seeks to study the relationship between weight of patients on medical cost of patients, smokers and their medical cost and level of exercise of patients and their corresponding medical cost. All these would assist in advising smokers and people who don’t exercise based on the findings from the study.

1.4. Scope of the study

The scope of this study is centered on the impact of smoking, less exercising on the weight and health care cost of patients using the federal medical center Owerri Imo state as a case study.

1.5. Limitation of the study

Time constraint

The major limitation of the study is the time constraint, the researcher was inhibited by time as there was no enough time to cover all patients in the hospital.

 

Financial constraint

Another constraint of this study is financial constraints, lack of adequate finances in printing enough questionnaires for the patients and to equally interview the health practitioners.

1.6. Research Questions

1. Is smoking dangerous to health?

2. Is there a relationship between smoking and poor health condition.

3. Is there a relationship between lack of exercise and poor health condition?

4. Do you think that smoking, lack of regular exercise affect the weight and health condition adversely?

5. Suggest ways of making smokers quit smoking.

 

 

 

1.7. Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1

H0: there is no relationship between smoking and high medical cost of patients.

H0: there is a relationship between smoking and high medical cost of patients.

Hypothesis 2

H0: there is no relationship between lack of regular exercise and high medical cost of patients.

H0: there is a relationship between lack of regular exercise and high medical cost of patients.

Hypothesis 3

H0: there is no relationship between smoking, lack of regular exercise, weight and medical cost of patients

H0: there is a relationship between smoking, lack of regular exercise, weight and medical cost of patients

1.8. Definition of Terms

Smoking:the activity or habit of smoking cigarettes.

Exercise:a physical or mental activity that you do to stay healthy or become stronger. It can equally be a set of movements or activities that you do to stay healthy

Weight:how heavy somebody or something is which can be measured in kilograms or pounds.

Medical:connected with illness and injury and their treatment.

REFERENCE

al’Absi M, Carr SB, Bongard S. Anger and psychobiological changes during smoking abstinence and in response to acute stress: prediction of smoking relapse. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007;66(2):109-115.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2014.

American Lung Association. About COPD.Accessed at www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/about-copd/symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html on February 11, 2014.

Canivet CA, Ostergren PO, Jakobsson IL, et al. Infantile colic, maternal smoking and infant feeding at 5 weeks of age. Scand J Public Health. 2008;36(3):284-291

Cantrell J, Vallone DM, Thrasher JF, et al. Impact of tobacco-related health warning labels across socioeconomic, race and ethnic groups: results from a randomized web-based experiment. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52206. Epub 2013 Jan 14.

Cardinale A, Nastrucci C, Cesario A, Russo P. Nicotine: Specific role in angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis.Crit Rev Toxicol. 2012;42(1):68-89.

Pate RR, Pratt MP, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA,. 1995; 273: 402–407.

 

American College of Sports Medicine.Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 6th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA, et al. Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001; 104: 1694–1740.

 

US Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 1996.

Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL, et al. The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. N Eng J Med. 1993; 328: 538–545.

 

Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, et al. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 793–801.

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

Tags: , ,

59 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

A REGRESSION ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF SMOKING, LEVEL OF EXERCISE, WEIGHT ON MEDICAL COST. (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTER OWERRI)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

The increase in the number of people who are ill in the various health establishments has risen geometrically overtime. Most of these illnesses may be as a result of unhealthy lifestyles and habits. Amongst this various unhealthy lifestyles and habits are smoking, lacks of exercise, weight, poor dietary just to mention but a few. In Nigeria specifically, a lot has been said about smoking and lack of exercise. Smokers as they say are liable to die young, though a lot of publicity has gone out to this regard, most smokers have rather not taken heed to this meaning but have rather seen it as a normal jingle without really pondering over it them to make changes in their life styles and bad habits.

Lack of exercise “as deadly as smoking” is now causing as many deaths as smoking in Nigeria and across the world.This has also contributed to the unprecedented rise in illness across Nigeria.

Strong evidence shows that lack of exercise which leads to physical inactivity increases the risk of many major adverse health conditions including:

Death (from any cause), coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, metabolic syndrome (including obesity and abnormal blood cholesterol levels), breast and colon cancer, depression etc.

It estimated that overall, physical inactivity which is caused by lack of exercise caused more than 5.3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008 which Nigeria is not excluded. The researchers suggest this is equivalent to the 5 million deaths attributed to smoking in 2000 (Kingsley 2012: 42).

It is generally believed that a regular exercise helps to

·        reduce the risk of falling ill

·        controls your weight

·        Improve your mental health and mood

·         Improve your ability to do daily activities

·        Increase your chances of living longer, etc.

There may also be a relationship between the weight of a person and the propensity to fall ill. This study helps to explore those unique relationship between the various parameters mentioned earlier in this study.

1.2. Aims and objectives of the study

The following are the objectives of the study:

1.  To know if there is a relationship between smokers and their weight.

2.  To study the impact of smoking and lack of exercise on health conditions of patients.

3.  To know the nature of relationship between smoking, weight, level of exercise on the medical cost of patients.

4.  To study the relationship between weight and health care cost of patients.

1.3. Significance of the study

The importance of this study seeks to unveil the impact of smoking, level of exercise, and weight on medical cost of patients in Nigeria. With the view of advising the generality of Nigeria based on the statistical discoveries made from the study.

This study also seeks to study the relationship between weight of patients on medical cost of patients, smokers and their medical cost and level of exercise of patients and their corresponding medical cost. All these would assist in advising smokers and people who don’t exercise based on the findings from the study.

1.4. Scope of the study

The scope of this study is centered on the impact of smoking, less exercising on the weight and health care cost of patients using the federal medical center Owerri Imo state as a case study.

1.5. Limitation of the study

Time constraint

The major limitation of the study is the time constraint, the researcher was inhibited by time as there was no enough time to cover all patients in the hospital.

 

Financial constraint

Another constraint of this study is financial constraints, lack of adequate finances in printing enough questionnaires for the patients and to equally interview the health practitioners.

1.6. Research Questions

1. Is smoking dangerous to health?

2. Is there a relationship between smoking and poor health condition.

3. Is there a relationship between lack of exercise and poor health condition?

4. Do you think that smoking, lack of regular exercise affect the weight and health condition adversely?

5. Suggest ways of making smokers quit smoking.

 

 

 

1.7. Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1

H0: there is no relationship between smoking and high medical cost of patients.

H0: there is a relationship between smoking and high medical cost of patients.

Hypothesis 2

H0: there is no relationship between lack of regular exercise and high medical cost of patients.

H0: there is a relationship between lack of regular exercise and high medical cost of patients.

Hypothesis 3

H0: there is no relationship between smoking, lack of regular exercise, weight and medical cost of patients

H0: there is a relationship between smoking, lack of regular exercise, weight and medical cost of patients

1.8. Definition of Terms

Smoking:the activity or habit of smoking cigarettes.

Exercise:a physical or mental activity that you do to stay healthy or become stronger. It can equally be a set of movements or activities that you do to stay healthy

Weight:how heavy somebody or something is which can be measured in kilograms or pounds.

Medical:connected with illness and injury and their treatment.

REFERENCE

al’Absi M, Carr SB, Bongard S. Anger and psychobiological changes during smoking abstinence and in response to acute stress: prediction of smoking relapse. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007;66(2):109-115.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2014.

American Lung Association. About COPD.Accessed at www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/about-copd/symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html on February 11, 2014.

Canivet CA, Ostergren PO, Jakobsson IL, et al. Infantile colic, maternal smoking and infant feeding at 5 weeks of age. Scand J Public Health. 2008;36(3):284-291

Cantrell J, Vallone DM, Thrasher JF, et al. Impact of tobacco-related health warning labels across socioeconomic, race and ethnic groups: results from a randomized web-based experiment. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52206. Epub 2013 Jan 14.

Cardinale A, Nastrucci C, Cesario A, Russo P. Nicotine: Specific role in angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis.Crit Rev Toxicol. 2012;42(1):68-89.

Pate RR, Pratt MP, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA,. 1995; 273: 402–407.

 

American College of Sports Medicine.Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 6th ed. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA, et al. Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001; 104: 1694–1740.

 

US Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 1996.

Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL, et al. The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. N Eng J Med. 1993; 328: 538–545.

 

Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, et al. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med. 2002; 346: 793–801.

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

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