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THE APPRAISAL OF COMMERCIAL BANKS SECTORIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LOANS AND ADVANCES

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0           INTRODUCTION                                                       1

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY                          1

1.2           STATEMENT OF PROBLEM                        3

1.3           OBJECTIVES OF STUDY                               4

1.4           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                           4

1.5           LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY                             4

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1           HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL BANKING IN NIGERIA                                                6

2.2           STRUCTURE OF THE NIGERIAN

COMMERCIAL BANKS                                 10

2.3           FUNCTIONS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS  12

2.4           LOANS AND ADVANCES BY COMMERCIAL BANKS16

2.5           LOAN AND ADVANCES TO PREFERRED AND LESS PREFERRED SECTOR                                      20

2.6           IMPORTANT OF LOANS AND ADVANCES TO THE PREFERRED                                                    20

2.7           FACTORS THAT AFFECT GRANTING OF LOANS22

REFERENCES                                                  23

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1           SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA            26

3.2           LOCATION OF DATA                                              26

3.3           METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION          27

 

CHAPTER FOUR

FINDINGS                                                                            28

 

CHAPTER FIVE

RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION                  30

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                 32

 

PROPOSAL

THE APPRAISALS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

SECTORIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LOANS AND ADVANCES

Commercial bank is a financial institution or banks that specialized in keeping money and other valuable safely and in granting short term loans, Advances to individuals and corporate bodies.

This project topic in chapter I will state the introductory aspects of commercial bank and their ability to influence economic activities through creation and distribution of loans and advances to their customers being the preferred and less preferred sectors of economy.

Chapter 2 will base on the evolution of commercial banks, their functions and the C.B.N. guidelines towards the distribution of loans and advances to the various sectors.  It will also state the objectives of commercial banks towards the distribution of loans and advances which is profit maximization.

Chapter 3 will be the method which I will use on the research topic which is secondary data like Newspapers, textbooks and Journals for more information needed for the topic and for the topic to be well emphasize so that I will benefit from the information.

In chapter 4. I will discuss the findings towards the topic like the solutions of the problems that will be encounter by Commercial Banks.

Chapter 5 will discuss on the concluding aspects or parts of the topic which means how Commercial Bank should abide by the rules and regulation guiding them when lending which will put inflation to an end in our economy.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

I got interested in the topic of this project owing to the fact that the preferred sector of the economy is being marginalized in its attempt to secure loans and advances from the Commercial Banks.

The Commercial Banks with their ability to influence economic activities through the creation and distribution of money has become the major focus of monetary activities.

The Central Bank of Nigeria has through the years sought ways and means of mobilizing funds for the development of the country’s economy.

Though equipped with various instrument of controlling and directing credit, the Central bank has found the method of credit guidelines most effective in directing credit to specified sectors of the economy.

Thus, the government has through the Central Bank succeeded in directing the Commercial Banks sectoral distribution of loans and advances.  It is not always easy to set guidelines and expect full compliance.  Guidelines have always been set to achieve certain objectives and the achievement of such objectives are always dependent upon full compliance by those affected by the guidelines.

The Central Bank of Nigeria guidelines on sectoral distribution of loans and advances are aimed at developing the productive sectors of the country’s economy as well as curbing price inflation.

The Commercial Banks who are expected to follow the Central Banks guidelines have their corporate objectives of making profits, the Commercial Banks have auxiliary objectives of meeting the demands of their shareholders, customers and government.

Therefore, the research problem rests on whether the Commercial Banks will be able to show full compliance with the Central Banks guidelines in the light of the risk involved and the lending rate prescribed for lending to the preferred and less preferred sectors of the economy.

 

1.3           THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this research project can be stressed as follows:

  1. a.                 To find out whether the Commercial Banks give out loans and advances to the preferred sectors of the Nigerian economy.
  2. b.                To find out whether the Commercial Banks give out loans and advances to the less preferred sector of the Nigerian economy.
  3. c.                 To find out what makes up the preferred and less preferred sectors of the Nigerian economy.

 

 

1.4           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research project will be of immense benefit to the academic world in the sense that it will stimulate future research.

It will equally be of immense benefit to the federal government of Nigeria in the sense that the activities of Commercial Banks affect the economy as a whole.

The study will also be of advantages to the business world and customers who wish to know why they are not given long term loan as requested by them.

 

1.5           LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study into Commercial Banks sectorial distribution of loans and advances is an inexhaustible one but the researcher could not be able to achieve much as she liked due to time constraint.

Another limitation is lack of statistical data.  All the necessary data required for this research project would not be brought owing to non availability and also the reluctant attitude shown by some workers in the places where these data were to be collected.

Also, pressue from classwork added to the limitation of the project because as there are so many assignments to be written and submitted within a stimpulated time, it could be very difficult for the researcher to be combining classwork and writing of project.

Another thing is financial constraint.

There was no money to run around to collect more data on the topic.

There was therefore no option but to use available data and journals.

 

 

 

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

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BANK ACCOUNTS

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HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

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That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

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21 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE ROLE OF BANKS IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN NIGERIA.

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0           INTRODUCTION

This project writ – up, “The role of Banks in international Trade”, is written to provide a guide sufficiently instructive in scope to meet the need for Banks, Economist in International Trade.

Among the important topics examined are if there are various relationship, role that exist between banks and international trade in Nigeria, nature of international economics, international trade, difference between international trade and internal trade, problems facing international trade in the banks sector.

 

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.

Nigeria before and even since the British Colonialist of our country has been engaged in international trade. But it was obviously spelt out during the British Colonialist that was in the 15th century termed legitimate trade.

This was until 1960 during which Nigeria got its independence. This means that, Nigeria was no longer controlled solely by the dictates of the British Government Ever since then legitimate trade to the Nigerian was changed to international trade of which Banks has a major role to play in it.

Nigeria since the oil boom in the early 70’s has been enjoying Nigeria and across the country. Diversifying its economy.

Apart fro international trade, and as a result of climatic factors, Nigeria needs international trade to diversify, accelerate its economic development in the country.

International trade ensures export expansion and import contraction coupled with the fact that it stimulates foreign exchange earnings, international recognition and the provision of employment opportunities for the teeming population.

International trade is synonymous with the production of goods and services for the benefit of trade across the country. Thus we have the banking institution, the food processing export/import trade and the sugar, tobacco export/import trade and that of petroleum export trade is not left behind. Therefore, international trade or external trade is a trade between two or more countries.

Example. Trade between Nigeria and USA as well as Ghana, India, Britain, Japan etc. trade between two countries is called bilateral trade, while trade between many countries is called multilateral trade.

International trade does not mean the exchange of goods and services within a country. The exchange of goods and services among the people of the same country is called home or internal trade. Example, all trading activities which take place within Nigeria in a home or international trade.

External trade is established for the purpose of stabilizing nation’s economy standard if living.

External trade has been proved beyond doubts as very important for a nation’s survival therefore it is peevant that we explicably manifest how the role of banks can be employed for the development of these trade. In doing this, we will limit our study to short and long term scale institutions which are very important to the economy.

Short term scale institutions ad defined by the central bank credit guidelines is, any service enterprise whose annual business turnover does not exceed N500,000.00 (five hundred thousand naira).

There is no definition for long term scale institutions as these did not attract the direct emphasis of the CBN.

The role of banks in international trade development of Nigeria, could be seen through the various services which these banks provide for the sustenance of international trade in the country.

These services include the provision of capital for these exporter/importers in the business inform of loans, such as short term loans, medium and long term loans, which the traders could use to finance their business goals.

The banks also provide overdraft facilities, which are necessary to finance the working capital of the business.

An overdraft could be defined as an arrangement whereby the banks allow their customers to over-draw his account up to a credit position at the end of the period, while short term loans refer to loans granted for periods between one to five years. Then medium and long term loans are granted for periods between five to ten years, even ten years respectively.

Apart from granting loans and over drafts facilities, there are still other roles which banks could play in international trade development in Nigeria. These roles include professional advice, opening of documentary letters of credit (L/CS), bills for collection and negotiation/open account and bills of exchange, foreign exchange example travelers cheques and foreign currencies, information on trade and exchange restrictions, collection and transfer of funds status enquires, etc. above all the determination of the actual external funds required by an export/import borrower. There are accepts of such services which help international trade growth or expansion.

It is not for fetched that the exporters/importers of international trade suffer their own bank problems, which should be analyzed and solved to ensure international trade development. These problems such as the problem of corruption in banking parastatals, obtaining capital from and operational problems which are coursed by the dictates of the Nigeria environment and society.

The irrational problem of manpower requirement and the poor knowledge of trade across of these external traders help to compound the general problems of international development of which bank services can be gainfully employed for the purpose of solving them.

Addition to the problems is lost of trust ship among the members or cooperators of the trade 4, 1, 9, problem among members.

In all, these problems the worst is the problems of unstable political contradictions.

These problems should be totally exterminated by the government, and the society entirely to ensure the steady growth of this important sector of the business of the economy.

It has been noticed that the level of banks institutions financing has been vary poor compared with is obtained in developed nations such as America (USA), Germany but few. The central bank of Nigeria (C. B. N) should step up their moral suasion policy so as to make these banks especially the commercial banks to increase the level of their financing of exporter/importers members.

In increasing this level of their financing emphasis should be placed on medium and long term loans to enable these traders concretize their investments for better results in its outputs; though the commercial banks borrow short from their deposits, the commercial banks who also declare excess profits at the end of each year should expand a lading pattern for medium and long terms loans without adversely affecting their liquid ratios.

With the funds available from the banks, international traders should be made to judiciously invest them and with other important a sound, solid firm and concrete foundation must be laid for the international development of the country.

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The Nigerian Banks plc is a pillar in the roles contributed to international trade in Nigeria. The Nigerian banks have various established institutions that enhance the growth of international trade.

Commercial banks, merchant banks, development banks, are one of the banks instrument that hold a vital role in external trade and has been branched all over Nigerian states. The contribution of the above banks to international trade has been a satisfactory type. Most importers and exporters dances to tune of these banks.

Why has these very banks so appetizing to the society and the world at large? Is the success as a result of the banks efforts in it’s operations?

Why do importers/exporters prefer it to other financing institutions?

 

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To find out if commercial banks play any role in international trade in Nigeria.
  2. To find out if merchant banks play any role in international trade in Nigeria.
  3. To find out if development banks play any role in international trade in Nigeria.
  4. To find out if commercial banks play any role in international trade.
  5. And equally to find out if people’s bank play any role in international trade in Nigeria.

 

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTION

  1. What role do commercial banks play in international trade?
  2. What role do merchant banks play in international trade?
  3. What role do development banks play in international trade?
  4. What role do community banks play in international trade?
  5. What role do people’s bank play in international trade?

 

1.5    ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY

It is assumed that in this research the secondary data collected is correct and reliable.

The procedure and method used is correct and reliable.

 

1.6    SCOPE OF STUDY

Area of coverage

The role of banks in international trade in Nigeria .

Banks method of contribution to international trade in Nigeria.

Why international trade in Nigeria?

Advantages of international trade in Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

1.7    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

          Today, the government parastatals, banking sectors and the society are all hands on deck to enhance the international trade development and growth of Nigerians economy.

The research study will be of high benefit to banking sectors, importers/exporters and to the society in general to embark of the effectiveness of their business, which inturn will change of the society. Also the study will determine the census and problems of banks role in international trade in Nigeria and thereby should be taken as a corrective measure.

Through this investigation, therefore, the banks and the society will then know their weak points and willingly adopt measure aimed at enhancing it’s business effectiveness.

The government will be in the position to adopt the right strategies to enable the society achieve it’s business expectations or goals.

 

 

 

1.8    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.

Limitation encountered by the research work is finance and incorporation attitude of respondent: – Some respondents were out rightly hostile and very impatience to entertain genuine requests. There was also bureaucratic bottle – neck that some official documents. However, these constraints did not destroy the ingredient of this research.

 

1.9    DEFINITION OF TERMS.

(a)     International Trade:     As described by the Author, Norbert M Ile in his published test “Economics of business studies” (1999, P. 278) defines an international trade or external trade as “a trade between two or more countries; it is the exchange of goods and services between two or more countries”.

(b)     Banking Institution:    We can define a bank as any organization that handles people’s money. It is a dealer in debts, but indebtedness has a correlation to wealth and hence, a bank can be described as a liquefier of wealth.

(c)     Role: It is defined as “actors in a play; persons task or duty in undertaking.

(d)     Foreign Exchange:      This is a process by which a country exchanges it’s goods/services to another country’s goods/services.

(e)     Overdraft:  This is a system whereby a customer drawns more money then he has to his credit in a bank.

(f)     Economy:  It is a system of control and management of the money goods and other resources of a society.

 

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

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27 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT IN THE FORMATION ACQUISITION AND LIQUIDATION OF COMPANIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE:

APPROVAL PAGE:

DEDICATION:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

ABSTRACT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1           INTRODUCTION

1.2           THE NATURE OF ACQUISITION MERGER AND LIQUIDATION

1.3           REASONS FOR ACQUISITION MERGER AND LIQUIDATION

1.4           STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

1.5           PURPOSE OF STUDY

1.6           SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

1.7           HYPOTHESIS

1.8           LIMITATION AND SCOPE OF STUDY

1.9           DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW:

2.1           INTRODUCTION

2.2           THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT IN FORMATION OF COMPANIES

2.3           THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT IN ACQUISITION OF COMPANIES

2.4           THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT IN LIQUIDATION OF COMPANIES

2.5           THE GUIDES ON CORPORATE FAILURE AND BUSINESS SURVIVAL, THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT

2.6           THE PROBLEMS OF THE NIGERIAN ACCOUNTANT

2.7           SUMMARY OF REVIEWS LITERATURE

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

3.1    INTRODUCTION

3.2    DESCRIPTION OF POPULATION AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE

3.3    SOURCE OF DATA

3.4    QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

3.5    QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN AND DISTRIBUTION

3.6    SUMMARY

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS: …………………………………………………..

4.1           INTRODUCTION

4.2           ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM USERS OF ACCOUNTING SERVICES AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING

4.3           ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS AND TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

1.5           INTRODUCTION

5.2           SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.3           RECOMMENDATION

5.4           CONCLUSION

APPENDIX A:

APPENDIX B:

APPENDIX C

INTERVIEW GUIDE……………….

BIBLIOGRAPHY: …………………………………………………….

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER

1.1                              INTRODUCTION

The public accountant is an independent practitioner who works on a gee basis for business management or for individuals wishing to use his services or as member of an accounting firm. Most public accountants are also external authors.

 

The commonly known services offered by the public accountant include the following:

  1. Those that are substantially of auditing nature
  2. Those who involve primarily accounting
  3. Those pertaining to taxes.

 

Most people perceive the roles of the public accountant as being limited to the traditional one balance sheet in the process of auditing the financial statements of companies.

 

The have failed to realize and appreciate that the public accountants provides services in respect of problems relating to conceptualization of business ideas, formation, registration and development of business most importantly on how to do with the collection and presentation of accounting data. They also undertake routine book-keeping for enterprises without adequate book-keeping personnel.

 

Very often, the accountant is consulted with respect to income tax implication of proactive transactions. In his contribution, Okugi said consultant of his client, the task will be more cost effective and efficient. Hence, he will be able to make comprehensive report to avoid as much tax as possible and avoid unnecessary duplication.

 

C.A. Okafor2 see the designing of accounting systems for clients as one of the frequently ignored aspects of public accounts in Nigeria.

 

The public accountant helps in the planning stage of company preparing feasibility studies, writing the expected financial flow-making realistic projections and determining the cost implication of intended projects. He also co-ordinates and uses the input from other professionals to compute, analyze and expose the financial implications of the entire line of action.

Nnam3 added that the accountancy firms perform appraisal of investor to determine their viability and profitability and to check the stability of expected cash flow.

 

The public accountant draft the Articles of Association, memorandum of Association and formulate the internal policy of the firms. These documents are then filed with the Register of companies. He can also help in the preparation of budget, business plan and installs control systems and procedures that generate necessary data from which information needed by business if processed. In same circumstances, a new or existing company may rely on the public accountant for recruitment of some specialized manpower or he can send his staff on recommendation to a new business for specified period during which the firm is expected to stand on its own4

 

He also has important roles to play in the diversification and enhancing of the company’s profitability and stability of income. This is done through regular, advisory service on the best way to utilize ideal funds. He should be able to advise on the more profitable lines in the production process, the services which generate more value added, which services, products or departments should, which services, products or departments should be initiated and which should be discontinued. The accountant gathers and analyzes quantitative information and gives opinion as to which alternative makes economic sense5.

 

The public accountant can also act, as an insolvency practitioner by examining the company to the whether immediate liquidation is needed or whether the company still stands a chance to succeed.

 

He can act as a receiver by taking possession of the assets as charged to debenture holders and realizing them and which he withdraws from the company.

 

He can also act as liquidation by selling and collecting (in case of debts) the assets of the company and pays the proceeds to the entitled.

 

 

1.2                              THE NATURE OF ACQUISITION, MERGER AND LIQUIDATION

Acquisition refers to all form of merger, amalgamation and take-over bids. It is the process of becoming a holding company or subsidiary involving significant cash out flow from the acquiring company to the acquired company’s shareholders as consideration for acquired interest.

 

Mergers, also called pooling of interests, describe an acquisition through the exchange of equity shares. Specifically, the parent company issues its own share certificate in exchange of equity shares certificate of the subsidiary. There is no purchase/ sale transaction between the affiliates, so the long term investment by the parent company is carried at the book value of the shares issued as consideration.

 

Amalgamation is the merger of two or more companies or undertakings of the interest in business or undertakings. The merger could be temporary and involve only certain aspects of a business operation (e.g. the pooling of orders or sales or formalized co-operation in production or procurement of inputs) this is referred to as partial merger.

 

It can also be a complete amalgamation and usually involves the absorption of one or two companies by an existing company by new company specially formed for that purpose.

 

In its narrowest sense, it is the formation of entirely new company to acquire existing separate concern. This necessitate the winding up of the existing companies. In its wider sense, it could be used to mean absorption whereby there is new company formation and is a two company situation, there will be only one liquidation.7

 

Liquidation can be described as a situation whereby authorization is given to sell business of the old company to a new company and in consideration to accept, shares in the new company for the agreed asset value. The only asset in the hands of the liquidator is now these new shares and he distributes them to the old shareholders. The end result is the shareholders now hold share in the new company at the agreed reduced valuation and the new company owns the business.

 

The principal advantage from the point of view of the shareholders is that dissenting shareholders have the right to acquire the liquidator either to abstain from carrying the resolution of effect or to purchase their shares at an agreed price.

 

1.3                              REASONS FOR ACQUISITION, MERGER AND LIQUIDATION

Expansion is a major objectives of most organizations. Usually a large and profitable company with adequate records invests on other companies.

 

The investment can be short term or long term; it can be an investment in debt securities or in the share capital of the other company. When a company invests in the shares (ordinary or preference) of another company, the reason may be just to employ idle case and earn some additional revenue or it could be to enhance growth through the production and sale of new products and services.

 

Additional reasons may be to gain access to new markets and supply sources or to exercise influence and control over the company whose shares are acquired. When the desire is to effect control a company invests in the ordinary shares of the other company.

 

Companies who could not stand the presume of the government economic policy collapsed due to structural Adjustment programme (SAP) introduced in 1986 which was directed towards encouraging Nigerian companies to source their raw materials locally and the self-sustaining. To provide themselves with a strong common front against the industrial constraints, many other average companies came together to form a merger. And yet the big one emerged to acquire the weak companies. For instance, seven-up Bottling company acquired’ Schweppes’, lever Brothers Limited also merged with Liptons Nigeria limited.

 

In Nigeria today, the number or record of company, failures mergers and acquisition is intriguing and the trends from all indications are expected to continue as more and more companies continue to absorb the stringent impact of ASP. And only those companies with the correct and adequate mix of resources can survive.

 

1.4                              STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Peter Langard stated that the most proprietors of small businesses look upon the statutory audit as an imposition and do not feel that there is any value to the business firm from it.

 

Thinking makes it imperative on the accountants to emphasis the non-audit roles in order to retain the prestige, improve their income, ensure the satisfaction of their clients and enhance national economic development.

 

Thus, most people including potential investors and entrepreneurs do not understand the expert services the professional accounting firm can provide them.

 

The above problem that is the lack of understanding of the accountants other capabilities has called for some questions, answers to which will give an insight into the non-auditing roles of accounting firms, especially at the formation and infancy staged of business. The quest are:

(i)              What are the usual problems proprietors encounter prior to, at the formation and at the initial stage of their business?

(ii)           Which of the accountants usual function are specifically relevant to the needs of new firms?

(iii)        Can public accountants assist in the planning, registration and management of young firm? To what extent can the accountant’s involvement help the firms to achieve growth and profitability?

(iv)         Is it feasible and advisable for public accounting firms to initiate enlightenment programme through organization of lectures, symposia, seminars and so on with an aim of encouraging potential entrepreneurs to set, up business?

 

1.5                              PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this study is to bring to the notice of the public particularly potential investors and entrepreneurs, the services the professional accountants can provide them.

 

It is at exposing to them the problems firms will undergo at infancy and highlighting those areas where the public accountants will readily provide succour.

 

Besides, it seeks to bring to the notice of the chartered accountants, the pressing needs of today’s small firms in the Nigerian context with a view to making them respond swiftly and decisively to such needs.

 

In summary, the purpose of this study is to answer the questions raised at the problem statement which this writer believes will be of mutual benefit to the public as well as the accountant.

 

1.6                              SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The main beneficiaries of this study are public, the accounting firms, professional accounting bodies and government.

a.       PUBLIC: This study will enable the public appreciate the duties of the accountants and their capabilities. In particular it will be useful to budding entrepreneurs who may find in the accounting firms, a useful instrument for realizing their dreams of owing their business and making profit through

b.      ACCOUNTANT FIRMS: Though this work, the accounting firms may understand more clearly the problems firms and individuals encounter which they are in position to solve.

 

Subsequently, it will enable them to broaden their services, acquire new clients and provide other related services to their audit clients. This undoubtedly will help improve their image and ultimately their income.

 

c.       PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING BODIES: The outcome of the study may aid the understanding of the new challenges facing accountancy professional in their peculiar environment.

 

Consequently, this will guide professional accountancy bodies life institute of chartered Accountants of Nigeria, (ICAN) in determining and designing the type of training and exposure that, will be given to its existing and intending members in order to equip them adequately to tackle such problems. Thus, it may find the need to introduce courses and organize lectures with a view to making qualified accountants acquire new skills relevant to the needs of clients and the economy.

 

d.      GOVERNMENT: The active participation of accountancy firms in the formation and development of new firms will help in the realization of government’s objectives of encouraging small and medium scale industries. This study may show necessity of government to review certain laws that hinder the accountants from performing their roles in ensuring survival and growth of such firms and make new laws where necessary. Besides, government will benefit from the survival of such companies as it will derive income through taxes and job opportunities will be created.

1.7    HYPOTHESIS

The hypotheses developed for this study are:

(1)     That the most compelling constraint to company formation survival and growth in Nigeria is lack of adequate business information and expertise and not, capital shortage.

(2)     That Nigerian investors have failed to understand fully the roles and relevance of the accountant to the survival and growth of their businesses.

(3)     The Nigerian public Accountants have consistently emphasized their traditional roles of Book-keeping Accountancy and Auditing and neglected their non-audit functions.

 

1.8    LIMITATION AND SCOPE OF STUDY

The study does not dwell much on the audit function of the accountancy firms since most people seem to be aware of it already and it is perhaps the most popular role of public accountants in Nigeria.

 

Due to financial and time constraints, this researcher will only take a sample of firms and businessmen in judging the extent to which accountants play roles in development of new enterprises. The sample may be too small for reasonable conclusion to be drawn from it.

 

Unavailability of related literature on the topic imposes serious limitation on the writer.

 

1.9              DEFINITION OF TERMS

(a)     FORMATION: Implies bringing into being or “bringing into existence.

(b)     COMPANIES: Denotes to partnership firms, sole proprietorship, public or private companies, or all forms of business operated.

(c)     PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT: Those accountants whose services are rendered to the general public on fee basis.

(d)     ACQUISITION: Here refers to all forms of merger, amalgamation, and take-over bids. It is the subsidiary involving significant outflow of cash from the acquiring company.

(e)     LIQUIDATION: Act of bringing an existing company that could not continue in business to a close.

(f)     ACCOUNTANCY FIRMS: These means business organization consisting primarily of professional accountants registered with ICAN and are qualified to be external auditors to other firms.

(g)     CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS: Refers to follows and Associate members of institute of chartered Accountants of Nigeria and other bodies of accountant recognized in Nigeria which qualifies one to be external auditor of a company.

 

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

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OR

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HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

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That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

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08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

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www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

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27 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA AND MERCHANT BANKS IN FINANCIAL INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA AND MERCHANT BANKS IN FINANCIAL INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN NIGERIA

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

ABSTRACT

Chapter ONE

1.1           INTRODUCTION

1.2           DEFINITION OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

1.3           AIMS OF THE STUDY

1.4           STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.5           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6           SCOPE AND LIMITATION

1.7           HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MERCHANT BANKING IN NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

2.1.        NIGERIAN BANKING SYSTEM

2.2 INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND EXCHANGE RATE POLICIES IN NIGERIA

2.3  BALANCING OF PAYMENT AND NIGERIAN FOREIGN TRADE

2.4  RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA’S BALANCE OF PAYMENT

2.5   PRINCIPLE OF COMPARATIVE COST

2.6   TRADE RESTRICTIONS

2.7 INTERNATIONAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND EVOLUTION OF THE NIGERIA ECONOMY

2.8   THE BENEFIT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

2.9   FUNCTIONS OF MERCHANT BANKS

2.10  FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRAL BANK OD NIGERIA

2.11 THE ROLE OF THE MERCHANT BANKS IN FINANCING INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN NIGERIA

2.12 THE ROLES OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA IN FINANCING INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN NIGERIA

2.13   INSTRUMENTS OF FOREIGN PAYMENT

2.14   SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW

2.15 SUMMARY OF PROCEDURE IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE.

CHAPTER THREE

3.1   METHODOLOGY

3.2   SAMPLING PROCEDURES

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1   ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

4.2   QUESTIONNAIRES

CHAPTER FIVE

 5.1   SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2   recommendationS

5.3           CONCLUSION

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1           INTRODUCTION

The role of international in the acceleration of political and socio – economic development of any nation deserves a good study. The term international trade refers to the trading operation conducted beyond national boundaries otherwise called export and import. It enables one country t have access to those commodities they could not possible produce themselves. Thus a country is able to shift its industry to those products and services for which its resources are most suitable exporting its resources in exchange for the specially of other countries.

Currently in Nigeria, the export growth rate is shown and correctly perceived as a major ousted to accelerated development and in other to avert this, virile export oriented strategies should be evolved. The import and export sector of any economy has to be nurtured, protected and promoted to enhance its positive and meaningful contributions to the survival of the economic system. Apart from government incentives, private and public companies, assistance and specialized financial institutional support, banking institutions play vital roles in financing international trade. As a result of this, it becomes necessary to study the roles of merchant banks and central bank of Nigeria in financing this international trade in Nigeria.

The central bank stored as the apex of the banking system of every country. It is the government representatives in the banking sector and acts mainly as banker to the government.

It acts as banker and adviser to the federal government banks, merchant banks and other financial institutions. It also has the monopoly of issuing legal tender currency in Nigeria and materials external reserves in order to safeguard the international value of the currency, promote monetary stability and sound financial structure.

In relation to international trade the central bank determines what and how much to approve in the areas within its justification such as payment for visible and invisible imports and controls in inflow of foreign exchange earnings from export. It processes exchange control application and makes foreign exchange allocation to qualifying applicants, assist in the monitoring and in the formulation of policies designed to ensure the optimum employment and conservation of the country’s foreign exchange earnings.

Apart from the rules played by the central bank in the international trade, there are two other licensed banks that supplement its rates. The commercial bank and the merchant banks. The commercial banks are referred to as retail banks because of the nature of their operations. They operate through a network of branches throughout the country and have board deposit base. That is the commercial banks accepts deposits from all and not from a particular sources (The deposits are usually called demand deposits).

The second category of the licensed banks is the merchant banks, which are wholesale bankers in the sense that their deposits are usually in very large blocks. They operated from few branches in the commercial centers of this country. They also accept deposits from the public and private co-operations as well as wealthy individuals; their functions include medium and long-term financing, investment. Management, management of unit trust, debt factories equipment leasing and issuing and acceptance of bills of exchange.

As regards international trade the merchant banks have acquired a reputation for fast and efficient processing of international business transactions such as foreign exchange for companies engaged in importing and exporting of capital goods, the merchant banks provide services which include the processing of remittance and documentary draft for collection and letters of credit. From the foregoing, the central bank and the merchant banks are indispensable as for as international trade is concerned and as such deserved a good study.

 

 

2.2 a. DEFINITION OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

International trade is the movement of goods and services between countries such that one country is able to shift its industry to those products and services for which its resources are most suitable, exporting its resources in exchange for the specialty of other countries.

b. CENTRAL BANK

It is defined by functions it performs, it is the nations bank charged with the issuing of legal tender, maintaining external reserves, supervisor of other banks, promoting of monetary stability, adviser to the government on financial matters and maintaining sound financial structure.

c. merchant bank

A merchant bank is any financial institution that engages in wholesale banking, median and long-term financing, investment management, management of unit trust, debt fractioning, equipment leasing and issue and acceptance of bills of exchange.

1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to give an overview of the activities of merchant banks and the central bank, particularly their roles in financing international trade in Nigeria. In international trade the roles being played by both banks are complementary in the sense that one cannot function without the “acquit of the other”. Suffice it to say that international trade financing activities of one bank is complemented by the other hence the topic “the role of central bank of Nigeria and merchant banks in financing international trade in Nigeria.

Merchant banks are recent occurrence in the country’s banking industry. Not much is known by the public about their activities.

The aim of this research work therefore is to highlight the roles of central bank and merchant banks in international trade financing.

1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

International trade is a trade between nations of the world and this trade arises from two basic reasons. One of this reason is that most countries find themselves in need of commodities they could not possible produce. Another basic reason for international trade is that countries different in their efficiencies in the use of national resources.

In Nigeria, international trade has contributed a lot to the country’s infrastructure and manpower development. Promoting international trade requires the assistance and financial support of specialized financial institutions like the central bank and merchant banks.

This study attempts to identify the roles these banks play in financing international trade in Nigeria, these include:

i.                   Knowing their roles in terms of borrowing and lending.

ii.               Evaluating the extent of their financial investment in financing the trade in Nigeria.

iii.           To appraise the performance of these banks to know as far as possible the remote causes of adverse balance of trade.

iv.           To know how the banks have been encourage in playing the roles.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study could be seen on reflecting, that international trade exists as a backbone of our economic system, which is a subset of our national economy. It is and engine of growth, a potent strategy for mutual interdependency among world nations and of course, an instrument for technological and industrial emancipation.

It is aimed at identifying the roles of the central bank of Nigeria and the merchant banks as it affect international trade. The roles as identified are observed through recommendations to be made, where these roles are not identified and encourage, development and growth of international trade will continue to elude Nigeria which will invariably restore the development of the nation as a whole.

The central banks roles in this country are often misunderstand and as a result the central bank can become a target of public criticism, particularly doing period of economic upheavals. This study has been designed therefore to show the roles it plays in building the economy. It should be noted that the central bank operated basically within the provisions of the 1958 central banks Act and its various amendments.

The merchant banks play rules germane to our economic development country to public commitment. This study aims at revealing these roles and making recommendation. The study is significant to business executives, policy makers, economist, merchants and government agencies. Through the study, attention is drawn on drawn on the roles the banks play and ways to encourage these

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study is to cover the central bank of Nigeria and the merchant banks operations as it affects the financing of international trade in Nigeria with CBN Enugu and crown merchant bank Benin as a case study.

The shortcomings in this study include the inability of the research work to get all the necessary materials relevant and adequate for this study.

For example, during the oral interview with the staff of crown merchant bank, they maintained a high seereey which limited the scope of the information that the research waited to gather. They were afraid that if they disclose such information it would go into the hands pf their competitors. While the staff of CBN Enugu insisted and maintained in issuing general information of CBN as body.

The problem of limited times is more constraint although efforts were made to justify the work. There was equally lack of fund to travel these long distances, especially this country where transport network is poor and expensive. Also poor communication network contributed to the limit of the study.

1.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND DEVELOPMENT CONSTITUTION AND STRUCTURE  OF THE CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA

CBN Enugu was traced back to the 11th day of June 1995 where its foundation block was laid by the, then governor of Eastern Nigeria, His exchange Sir Francis Akanu Ibiam G.C.O.N K.C.M.G and later commissioned on the 12th of April 1973, by the then Administrator of the East central state. His Excellency Mr. Ukpabi Asika.

Further information reveals that its parent body was established in 1958 under an Act of parliament known as the central bank Act. For many years before the establishment of the, a rudimentary monetary system had already began the process of transforming the Nigeria economy from a barter economy. The media of exchange then were however multifarious and therefore not very conducive to the operations of modern monetary system. Hence one could not really regard Nigeria as having a monetary system, at least in terms of orderliness until the establishment of the West African Currency Board (WACB) and the introduction of single currency system for West African in 1992. The establishment of the West African currency Board essentially prepared the way for the emergent modern financial system in Nigeria.

However, the W.A.C.B itself as designed could hardly be described as a monetary authority in terms of using any discretionary power to control the growth of credit and money supply in the economy.

Thus the W.A.C.B has been described as simply a positive moneychanger. This major shortcoming of the WACB provided the basic for agitation in favor of the establishment of a central bank not only in Nigeria but also in other countries operating under the West African currency Board system.

The first formed move towards the establishment of a central banks in Nigeria was in April, 1952. Then a private members motion was proposed in the then house of representative calling for the establishment of a central bank in Nigeria to perform essentially those functions generally associated with central bank. This because the colonial government considered the establishment of a central bank in Nigeria then was premature in view of the relative underdevelopment of the local financial system. The house however passed amendment motion asking the government to examine and report back to it on the possibility of establishing a central bank in Nigeria.

To this end, an adviser to the bank of England, Mr. J.L. Finisher was accordingly given the task of examining this possibility. While the finisher’s report did not favor the establishment of a central bank in the country in the immediate feature, it did, however recommend a three step programme which it hopped would eventually lead to the establishment of the CBN. These steps in charge the transfer of the WASB headquarters from London to West Africa. This it hoped would allow the local people to be move closely associated with the board and also provided them with opportunity of acquiring some experience from its operations.

The second step in fishers programme was that a Nigeria currency should be established to replace the CBN.

In addition the programme called for the establishment of a bank of issue, which was later to develop into central bank. None of these steps was however implemented especially since its report itself did not recommend any immediate establishment of a Nigeria central bank.

In 1953, a year after the fisher’s report a World Bank mission visiting Nigeria considered the same issue and while agreeing with fisher that the establishment of a central bank Nigeria was premature however, urged for a rapid reform of the WASB to remove some anomalies in its operation. It also recommended, like fisher for the establishment of a state bank of Nigeria which would take over the issue of currency from WACB.

What would eventually lead to the establishment of the final study on the issue by Mr. J.B. Loynes who was also an adviser to the bank of England?

Loynes in his report favoured the establishment of central bank of Nigeria and his main recommendation because the basis of the CBN Act that effectively established the bank. Thus following the J.B Loynes report, the CBN was established by an Act of parliament known as the CBN Act to perform the traditional central banking functions end serve as the pivotal national financial intuitions.

With the establishment of the bank therefore, the west African currency board operations in Nigeria were placed out and taken over and refined by the bank.

STRUCTURE OF THE BANK

Under the original statute of the bank, the policy and general administration of the affairs and business of the bank was the responsibility of a board of directors consisting of a governor, a deputy governor and five other directors of all whom were to be appointment by the president of the federation. The governor served as the chairman of the board and he and the deputy were responsible for the day-to-day management of the bank and were answerable to the board for their acts and decisions.

However, following the recommendation of a firm of management consultants Mckingsay international Mc. Of the United Kingdom in 1977, the structure of the bank was changed. The firm of management consultants was appointed by the bank to undertake a review of the organization structure and management protectices of the bank. The board of directors is currently made up of thirteen members that include the government and deputy governor; three of the board members are executive directors. Thus the governors are currently responsible for the day-to-day management of the bank. The management of the bank is essential in the performance of its duty by ten departmental directors all of whom are career staff of the bank and are responsible for implementing the various decisions of the board. Each departmental director is basically responsible for the activities of his department. Furthermore, the current structure of the bank is such that a group of department directors report to a specific executive director assigned to the overall supervision of the department.

 

 

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

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27 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT ON COMMERCIAL BANK PROFITABILITY A CASE STUDY OF OCEANIC BANK INTERNATIONAL PLC. EFFURUN, DELTA STATE

ABSTRACT

This study examined the Impact of Liquidity Management on Commercial Bank Profitability a case study of oceanic bank international plc. Effurun, Delta State. This study revealed that commercial banks are faced with two conflicting objectives namely: liquidity optimization and profitability optimization to contend with. The researcher also showed that the problem of these two conflicting objectives became too complex in modern banking subsector which is characterized by competition. Based on this problem, the study of the impact liquidity management will have on commercial bank’s profitability was carried out to determine ways of resolving the problems associated these conflicting objectives. As regards the methodology used in this study, the simple percentage statistics was used in analyzing responses from questionnaire which was administered to bank staff and executive of Oceanic bank international plc. Finally recommendations were given by the researcher on how these problems will be resolved.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0           INTRODUCTION

 

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

In every system, there are major components that are very important for the survival of the system. This is also applicable to the financial system. The financial institution have contributed immensely to the  growth of the entire financial system, as they offer an efficient institutional method through which resources can be mobilized and directed from less productive uses to more productive uses.

In performing these financial role, the financial institutions has proved to be an effective link between savers and borrowers, among the financial institutions that have partake in these important financial role are the commercial banks. The functions of the commercial banks have become the strong base for the two major functions of the commercial banks namely deposit mobilization and credit extension. Commercial banks have become a very important institution in the financial system as it helps in facilitating the movement of financial assets that are less desirable to the more desirable public who needed the financial assets. In view of this role and activities commercial banks play in the society, the commercial bank is selected as the main focus of this study.

An adequate financial intermediation requires the attention and focus of the bank management to the profitability and liquidity, which are the two conflicting objectives of the commercial banks. These objectives are parallel in the sense that an attempt for a bank to achieve higher profitability will gradually destroy its liquidity and solvency position and vice versa. Practically, profitability and liquidity are effective indicator of the corporate wealth and performance of not only commercial bank but to all profit oriented venture. These performance indicators are very important to the shareholders and depositors who are major publics of a bank. As the shareholders expect the bank to increase lending in order to give them maximum return in money invested while the depositor expect the bank to keep much idle cash in order to meet their demand. With profitability objective conflicting with that of liquidity, and with the interest of the shareholders conflicting with that of the depositors, there is the need for reconcile and harmonize these conflicting positions through effective liquidity management so as to ensure the survival and growth of the commercial banks.

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Through these financial roles, the commercial banks use the idle funds borrowed from the lenders by investing such funds in other classes of financial assets investment. These business activities of the bank is not done without problem facing it, since these deposit which have been invested by the banks for profit maximization can be demanded for at any time. When the bank is not able to meet their financial obligations, the public begins to loss confidence and these will cause lot of competition to the financial sector. With the high increase of competition in the banking industry, every commercial bank should strive to operate on profit and at the same time meet the financial demand of its depositors by maintaining adequate liquidity. The problem then becomes how to select the optimum point at which commercial bank can maintain its assets in order to optimize these two objectives. These problems become more difficult as a large number of banks are basically engaged with profit maximization and tend to neglect the importance of liquidity management and these can lead to technical and legal insolvency.

This research work will also see to other problems such as the effect of excess liquidity and the problem of estimating the proportion of the deposits that can be demanded for at any specific time, selection of factors that will affect or influence the bank liquidity level and finally problem of satisfying the two major publics of the commercial bank simultaneously. With these solutions will be prescribe and recommendations will be made where necessary.

 

1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The competition environment of the financial institutions is to tense that any commercial bank that aims to survive must be aware of the challenges of its liquidity and profitability obligation as both variable can make or destroy its future. This study is largely centered on liquidity objective and ensure its ability to meet up the depositors demand thereby maximizing its value and there is also uncertainties in the asset management of the commercial banks as the new deposit does not correspond with the customers’ withdrawals, since demand is made at short notice. Therefore this study is aimed at the following goals:

-     To know how liquidity management will handle these uncertainties and determine their effect on profitability

-     Discovering the specific factors that are useful in improving profitability and liquidity position of the commercial banks.

-     To examine the cost of liquidity and illiquidity levels on the performance of commercial banks and length at which this liquidity can be used as competitive instruments.

-     To take a critical view of the adopted liquidity measures of the commercial banks and attempt to see how it has been achieved.

-     Finding out the effect of changes in liquidity levels on profitability.

-     Aimed at discovering the credit and portfolio policies of the commercial banks

-     Finally it will attempt to identify the basic causes of liquidity problems in Nigeria commercial banks and to recommend appropriate measures to solve such problems.

 

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Based on the study the following research questions are asked:

-     What factors can be useful in improving profitability and liquidity position?

-     How can liquidity management lead to profitability?

-     What will be the effect of changes liquidity levels on profitability?

-     Is there any relationship between liquidity level and profitability level?

 

1.5    HYPOTHESIS

From the statement of problem, objective of study and research questions of the study, the following hypothesis are formulated:

  1. i.                   Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant relationship between liquidity level and deposit level.

Alternative Hypothesis (HI): There is a significant relationship between liquidity level and deposit level.

  1. ii.                 Null Hypothesis (HO): The amount of loans and advances granted to customers does not significantly determine the profit level.

Alternative Hypothesis (HI): The amount of loans and advances granted to customers significantly determine the profit level.

  1. iii.              Null Hypothesis (HO): There is no significant relationship between liquidity and profitability.

Alternative Hypothesis (HI): There is a significant relationship between liquidity and profitability.

  1. iv.              Null Hypothesis (HO): Commercial banks in Nigeria do not keep the minimum liquidity ratio required by the CBN.

Alternative Hypothesis (HI): Commercial Banks in Nigeria keep the minimum liquidity ratio required by CBN.

 

1.6    SCOPE OF STUDY

This study on the impact of liquidity management on commercial bank profitability is carried out to check the possibility of liquidity management bringing a huge range of profitability to the commercial bank. It uses Oceanic Bank International Plc Effurun Delta State as its scope and it is carryout within 2007 to 2010 that’s a time frame of 4 years.

 

1.7    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

For the fact that commercial banks operate on liquidity and profitability motives in the mind to satisfy their major publics, the shareholders and depositors, the need arise for them to bring into agreement these two motives with the aim of satisfying these two public concurrently. With this the commercial bank need effective and efficient liquidity management approaches and principles that will help them realize these motives. The result gotten form this study will reveal the level of attachment of the commercial banks to the monetary policies (liquidity ratios) established by the government and these will help the government to set appropriate liquidity ratio’s and cash ratio’s that will not be harmful to the operation and survival of the commercial banks. It will also help banks operators to evaluate how effective liquidity management and credit policy guidelines will affect profitability level and also the impact bank credit will play on bank’s liquidity and finally minimize the effect of illiquidity and help in providing effective liquidity formulations.

 

1.8    LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

Like every research work, this study is faced with a large number of challenges, starting from bank executives unwillingness to disclose necessary document and information needed for this study since they felt this information or document are confidential to them and that disclosing them might be detrimental to their business. This study is supposed to cover all commercial banks in Nigeria as they operate a unique policy in view of it threats and opportunities. However, the study is limited to just one particular bank due to insufficient time and lack of finance. Basically, the school activities as such have been a great challenge to this research, since these activities have occupied most time needed for this research. Nevertheless with all these challenges the researcher tried to conduct the research which is reliable.

 


1.9    Definition of Terms

a)      Liquidity: Ability with which asset can be easily converted into cash. It also determines a firm ability to meet its short-term obligation.

b)      Liquidity Management:  The planning and control necessary to ensure that organisation maintain enough liquid assets so as to meet its obligations to customers.

c.       Profitability: Profit is the ultimate measure of overall performance that is the excess of income over cost.

d.      Commercial Bank: The business of receiving money, from outside source as deposits, irrespective of payment of interest and granting of money loan and acceptance of credit or purchase and sells of securities for the account of others or incurring of obligations to acquire claims in respect of loans prior to maturity.

 

 

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27 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT:

 

This work discusses the significance of financial institution in the development of small and medium enterprises in Nigeria. A study of some selected banks in Bida. A hundred and twenty questionnaires were shared amongst proprietors and managers of selected SMEs in Bida. It was also shared amongst managers of selected banks in Bida. Interviews and surveys were also conducted.

 

Primary and secondary data were used the analysis. Both frequency distribution and regression analysis were used.

 

It was observed therefore that financial institutions have a significant positive impact in the development of SMEs in Bida. Also,there is a strong relationship between financial institutions and the development of SMEs.

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

1.2  Statement of the Research Problem

1.3  Objectives of the Study

1.4  Significance of the Study

1.5  Research Questions

1.6  Research Hypothesis

1.7  Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8  Assumptions

1.9  Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1  Sources of Literature

2.2  The Review

2.3  Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1  Research Method

3.2  Research Design

3.3  Research Sample

3.4  Measuring Instrument

3.5  Data Collection

3.6  Data Analysis

3.7  Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1  Data Analysis

4.2  Results

4.3  Discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1  Summary

5.2  Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

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27 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE ROLE OF NIGERIA AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANK ON NIGERIA ECONOMY

ABSTRACT:

 

This work discusses the role of Nigeria Agricultural cooperative and rural development bank on Nigeria economy. A hundred and twenty questionnaires were shared amongst customers and employees of the bank. Interviews and surveys were also conducted.

 

Primary and secondary data were used the analysis. Both frequency distribution and regression analysis were used.

 

It was observed therefore that the role of Nigeria Agricultural cooperative and rural development bank has a significant positive impact on the Nigeria economy. Also,there is a positive relationship between the Nigeria agricultural cooperative and rural development bank and the development of the Nigeria economy.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

1.2  Statement of the Research Problem

1.3  Objectives of the Study

1.4  Significance of the Study

1.5  Research Questions

1.6  Research Hypothesis

1.7  Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8  Assumptions

1.9  Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1  Sources of Literature

2.2  The Review

2.3  Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1  Research Method

3.2  Research Design

3.3  Research Sample

3.4  Measuring Instrument

3.5  Data Collection

3.6  Data Analysis

3.7  Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1  Data Analysis

4.2  Results

4.3  Discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1  Summary

5.2  Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

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27 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN FINANCING SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

THE ROLE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN FINANCING SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

ABSTRACT

 

The topic of dissertation is The Role Of Commercial Banks In Financial Small Scale Industry In Nigeria. A case study of union bank of Nigeria plc.

The major objective of the study is to ascertain the extent to which union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to financial small scale industries/.

Instrument of data collection is questionnaires and research questions which formed the source of primary data, while materials from various published articles, textbooks, journals and newspaper formed the secondary data.

The method of analysis is the use of  tables, percentages and chi-square .

The major finding of the research is that union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to financial small scale industries period under review.

The recommendation based on the finding is that in order to reduce the risk in small scale industry lending, the central bank of Nigeria and the government can do more than they are doing currently scheme.

The study concluded that if the desired objective of using small scale industries as catalysts of development is to be achieved than the role of commercial banks should be mutually supportive.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUTION ANALYSIS

1.1     Background to the problem

1.2     Problem statement

1.3     Objectives of the study

1.4     Research questions

1.5     Research hypothesis

1.6     Scope of study

1.7     Limitations of the study

1.8     Definition of study

Reference

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Introduction

2.2     Meaning of small scale industry

2.3     Government policy

2.4     Support systems

2.5     Financing

2.6     Monetary policy development in favour of small scale industries

2.7     Benefits of small scale industry

2.8     Problems facing small scale industry

2.9.1  Financing the project

2.9.2  Technical knows how

2.9.3  Personnel, matters and general administration

2.10   Improving funding small scale industries

References

CHAPTER THREE:   

RESEARCH METHODOLGY

3.0     Introduction of the study

3.1     Research design

3.2     Area of study

3.3     Population of study

3.4     Sample size determination

3.5     Instrument for data collection

3.6     Validation of the instrument

3.7     Reliability of the instrument

3.8     Method of data collection

3.9     Data analytical techniques

 

CHAPTER FOUR:     

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1     Presentation of data

4.2     Hypothesis testing

 

CHAPTER FIVE FINDINS:

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO PROBLEM

The successive development plans of Nigeria have laid emphasis on the attainment of self reliance.  The need for this national objective is because much is expected from individuals from the view point of providing employment opportunities self reliance in basic food and material production high per capital income, foreign exchange earnings and the production of industrial raw materials.

Okporobie (1989:10) observes that Nigeria small scale industries continued to decline despite the so called priority given to the sector

However, the discovery by the central bank  that this policy was not enough by it self led to the central bank request with effect from 1970/80 that all commercial bank must reserve a proportion of the minimum credit allocation to indigenous borrowers for small scale Nigeria enterprises.  The target prescribed in 1979 was ten percent (10%) which subsequently raised to sixteen percent (16%).

Even though available data showed that performance of commercial banks against this directive has been disappointing. The central bank intends to  spare no effort in ensuring that banks fully couple without compromising the smooth functioning of the nation banning system.

He observed also, that without the development of small scale industries in Nigeria, the nations quest for industrialization will certainly remain forever at stake. It is the opinion of the researcher that future development in our industrialization must address the basic issues of creating linkages without the economy to begin to produce real inputs to our manufacturing activities .

Priority attention must therefore be given to these industries for which domestic inputs could easily be produced.  This will bring about  agro-allied industries like food processing and other by-products.

The objective should be to maximize the value added in their processing and manufacturing as final goods immediately inputs.

Nzewi and Oze (1985:56) observed that empirical evidence indicates that strong producer incentives to small scale industrialists are necessary not also only to meet the food requirement but also to  provide growing input supplies and demand as a foundation for sustained industrial growth.

The present economic constraint may well turn out to be a blessing in disguise to our industrialization effect particularly for dynamic manufacturing sector.  For instance, the market determinate exchange rate through seeing with its result and high cost of imported inputs may serve as an impetus for industrialist to intensify their search for local substitutes.

Ekenyong and Nyong (1992) observed that small scale enterprises are regarded an organic part of a viable structure for the attainment meaningful economy development in developing economic like Nigeria.

They are significantly more cost effective in bringing about development than large enterprises because of the perceived linkage and multiplier effects which small scale enterprises have on the performance of the economy and economic growth in general.

 

Osayameh (1989) observes that the strength that make small scale enterprises more amendable for assistance areas as follows.

1.       Personal commitment of the proprietor whose life savings usually form the start up capital.

2.      Low initial capital out lay requirement

3.       Ease of entry and exit and prevalence of just minimal legal constraints

4.       Amenability to business advisory services because of their small size which makes than more responsive to improvement suggestions.

Olashore (1987) Observes that the four main sources of enterprises financing open to small scale industry in Nigeria are.

i.        Formal financial institutions such as commercial banks merchant banks, insurance companies and the development bank.

ii.       Informal financial landlords, credit and savings associations “esus” friends and relations personal savings and .

iii.      Other financial scheme, NERFUND NEXIM

in 2001, there was an introduction of small and medium industries equity investment scheme (SMIEIS) in which N359 million was set aside to date by banks under small medium industries equity investment scheme.

Through union bank small and medium scale enterprises (SMES) department, the bank has remain ed in fore front of SMES financing nations was extended to the SMES as at 31st March 2004.

Small scale industry is any industry not exceeding N750,000 including working capital  but excluding cost of land.

It is also defined by center for industrial research and development of Obafemi  Awolowo university Ile Ife as  those industries whose total assets in plant, equipment and working capital do not exceed N250,000 with not more than 50 employees.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem of credit to small scale industries may not necessarily be as a result of financing insufficiency but rather for some other reasons among which are.

i.        Insufficient preparation on the part of small scale entrepreneurs in their request for credit assistance.

ii.       Information gaps as to range of funding institutions and scope of services available in these institution

iii.      Moreover, servicing of small business accounts is relatively experience, risky and difficult to monitor with low turn over of account.

However, the parishioners in the sector small scale industry do not display competence in preparing justification for their project.  It is are to see most of them coming up with cash flow projections, projected balance sheets, among others.  They are based on personal rudimentary in formation and speculation.  At times when they seek the advice of consultants, the outcome that are made figures project based on assumptions which are most of their time unrealistic.

As a result such proposals are out rightly rejected by banks.

There are suitable when credit demands in this sector are not in compliance in this government monetary policy and credit guidelines which must be adhered to by banks.

The researcher identifies these problem and considers it necessary to carry our study on them.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study include:

a.       To ascertain the extent to which the union bank of Nigeria plc has helped to finance small scale industries.

b.       To identify the problems encountered by small scale industrialists in obtaining finance from union bank of Nigeria plc.

c.       To evaluate various measures introduced to boost industrial production and its financing and how this has affected realization of the set goals.

d.       To determine the causing changes in small scale industrial financing by union bank of Nigeria plc.

e.       To make suggestion and recommendations based on the data generated by the study.

 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The critical appraisal to give answers to the following questions.

a.       To what extent has  union bank of Nigeria plc helped to finance small scale industries?

b.       What are the problems encountered by the small scale industrialists in obtaining finance from union bank if Nigeria plc?

c.       What are the various measures introduced to boost industrial production and its  financing and how this has affected the realization of the set goals?

d.       What are the causes of changes in small scale industrial financing by union bank of Nigeria plc?

e.       Does any linear relationship exist between lending to small scale industries and economic recovery and self reliance on the economy?

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

a.       There is no linear relationship between lending to small scale industries and economic recovery and self-reliance of the economy.

b.       there is no relationship between union bank of Nigeria plc lending to small scale industries and the attitude of this customers

 

1.6     SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of the study is the role of commercial banks in financing small scale industries in Nigeria. A case study of union bank of Nigeria plc.  It does not cover the role of commercial banks in financing medium and large scale industries.

 

1.8     LIMITATION OF STUDY

However, there wee constraint imposed on the researcher this includes the following.

a.       Time a study of this nature, needs a relatively long time during which information for accurate or at least near accurate inferences could be drawn. The period of the study was short, hence time posed as a constraint to the researcher.

b.       Cost: The researcher would have extent the survey to areas.  But limitations here included cost of transportation to source for materials and cost of type setting the already completed work.

c.       Dearth (Scarcity) of statistical data:

lack of statistical data from our financial institutions like central bank of Nigeria (CBN) ministry of financial and economic development, commercial and merchant bank posed a constraints.

Commercial banks adhere strictly to the rule of secret, in banking thus they refused to released information.

 

1.8     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will highlight problems associated with the role of commercial banks in financing small scale industry in Nigeria.

It  will give information on the possible areas for improvement.

Furthermore, the study will help commercial banks to assess and appraisal their role in financing small scale  industry in Nigeria.

Moreover, suggestions and recommendations made in this paper will help policy makers formulate new economic policies maintain or modify the existing one.

It will equally serve as a guideline to researchers who may wish too decide with this study in the future.

It will also help small scale entrepreneurs to make sufficient preparation in their request for credit assistance.

It will guide the entrepreneurs in making credits demands that are compliance with government monetary policy.

The last but not the least it will help the entrepreneurs to displayed competence in preparing justification for their project. It is rear to see most of them coming up with cash projections, projected balance sheets.

 

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Small-scale industry:

Any industry with capital not exceeding N750,000 including capital but excluding cost of land.

It is also defined by center for industrial research and development of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile Ife as those industries whose total assess in plant equipment and working capital do not exceed N250,000 with not more than 50 employees.

 

2.       COMMERCIAL BANK

a financial institution that acquires deposit from savings surplus unit and give out loans to savings deficit units.

3.       INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT CENTER:  

Provide management, technical, consultancy and extension services for the small scale.

4.       INDIGENISATION DECREE:

A decree that stipulates that most business become, at least 60 percent owned by Nigerians.

5.       SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP:

Is a business owned and conducted by one person presumably assisted by one or more persons for intakes wife and children.

SS/CS small scale industry credit scheme.

 

 

 

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BANK ACCOUNTS

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Account Number: 0046579864

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OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

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27 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF CENTRAL BANK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIA ECONOMY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background of Study

The central bank of Nigeria CBN was establishing by the central bank of Nigeria act of 1958 and commences operations on the 1st of July 1959.

The principal objectives of the central bank of Nigeria was basically on the issuance of legal tender currency in Nigeria and the central bank of Nigeria is also saddle with the responsibility of maintaining the nations external reserve and value of the legal tender currency in other to safeguard the international value of the nation’s currency.

Some of the functions of the central bank of Nigeria also include promoting monetary stability and a sound financial system. They also serve as the banker and the financial adviser to the federal government on economy decisions. The CBN also serve as bankers to other banks within Nigeria and abroad.

The central bank of Nigeria play a major role in the development of Nigeria economy, the bank has been saddle with various responsibilities to ensure economy development.

The CBN has played a major role in the development of agriculture in the country through the Agricultural Credit Guaranty scheme Fund (ACGSF). The scheme was established by decree no. 20 of 1977, and started operation in April, 1978. Its original share capital and paid-up capital were one hundred million naira and eighty six million and six hundred thousand naira respectively. The federal government of Nigeria holds 60% and the central bank of Nigeria 40% of the shares. The capital based of the scheme was increase to three billion naira in March 2001. The funds guarantees credit fertilities to farmers. The fund is solely managed by the central bank of Nigeria which handles the day to day activities of the scheme.

The central bank of Nigeria has also play a vital role in the development of small and medium enterprises trough the establishment of the small and medium enterprise equity investment scheme. The scheme is a voluntary initiative of the bankers committee approved at its 26th meeting held on the 21st of December 1999. The initiative was in responsive of the federal government concerns and policy measures for the promotion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as vehicle for

rapid industrialization, sustainable economy development, poverty alleviation and employment generation.

The scheme require all bank in Nigeria to set aside ten (10) percent of their profit after tax for equity investment and promotion of small and medium scale enterprises. The ten (10) percent of the profit after tax to be set aside annually shall be invested in small and medium scale enterprises as the banking industry contribution to the government effort towards stimulating economy growth, developing local technology and generating employment. The central bank is saddle with the responsibility of ensuring absolute compliance of the banks towards the successful realization of the scheme.

The central bank of Nigeria established the infrastructure finance office on March 01 2010. The mandate of the office is to among others; evolve a sustainable financing frame work to stimulate long-term financing for infrastructural development in the country. The bank has undertaken some steps to improve the sectors as follows;

The bank provided three hundred billion fertility for investment in debentures to be issued by the bank of industry in accordance with section 31 of the CBN act 2007, for investment in power and aviation projects. As part of measures by the CBN to further encourage banks to lend to the real sector of the economy, particularly SMEs, infrastructural and agriculture, the board of directors of the bank has approved the amendment of the prudential guidelines on loan loss provisioning and rule and regulations on margin lending.

We can’t talk about the role the central bank of Nigeria has played on the Nigeria economy without mentioning the impact the CBN bank consolidation. The central bank recent reform (consolidation) that employed certain measure to strengthen the Nigeria banking system by drastically increasing the minimum capital requirement from two million naira to twenty-five billion naira. Through review of policy documents official report and economic information on the banking sector, it became evident the consolidation of banks led to a remarkable reduction of banks from 89 to 25 by merge, acquisition, initial public offer and other means. The bank consolidation has resulted in making banks more efficient and reliable and also, their intermediary potentials have also been revised.

Statement of Problem

The central bank of Nigeria must ensure its streamline the number of project in its entire department in other to ensure adequate funding of those projects. Funding of major project could serve as a limitation to the central bank in actualizing the implementations of it various projects that are expected to enhance the Nigeria economy.

Corruption as we all know is the order of the day in Nigeria, so, for the successful management of funds the central bank must makes sure it does not allow corrupt persons into its system of operations.

The activities of the central bank must not be politicized in any way in other to ensure equity in the disbursement of funds and in taking on special project across the six geo-political zones of the country.

Purpose of Study

The central bank on Nigeria must adhere to it policies in other to enhance economy growth in Nigeria and also in the banking and financial sector of the nation’s economy.

Hence, the fundamental purpose of this study is:

To access the impact of the central bank on the banking industry

To examine the impact of the central bank of the nation’s economy

To identify the benefit of the central bank so far.

To identify the effect of the central bank and other financial institution in sustaining the Nigeria economy

 

Research Questions

This study attempt to provide answers to the following research questions:

 How do you view the central bank in relation to economic development?

 Do you think the central bank policy on the Nigeria economy has had any impact on the economy?

 Has there been any improvement in the country economy ever since the central bank was created

 Are the Nigeria banks strong and trusted enough in spite of the CBN policy on consolidation?

 

 

 In your own view do you think the central bank has affected the nation’s economy positively or negatively?

 How would you rate the impact of the central bank on the manufacturing sector of the economy?

 How does the attitude of Nigerians affect the policies of the central bank?

 

Hypothesis

Looking at the main purpose of this research, it will be reasonable to propose that:

1) Ho: the state of the Nigeria economy has not improve since the establishment of the central bank

 

Hi: the state of the Nigeria economy has improve since the establishment of the central bank

11) Ho: the central bank is not strong and trusted enough to fully implement all its proposed economy policies.

Ho: the central bank is strong and trusted enough to fully implement all its proposed economy policies.

Significance of Study

 The significance of this study is to add to the general body of knowledge, enlighten the general public on the following:

 The impact of central bank on the Nigeria economy

 The impact of the central bank in reducing the poverty level of the nation’s economy

 To bring to light the activities of the central bank in general.

 To show to investors and the general public that the state of banks has undergone a lot of changes through the consolation policy of the central bank.

 

Limitation of study

This research works is basically on the impact of central bank in the development of Nigeria economy. The study will concentrate and will not go beyond the showing the impact of the central bank on the Nigeria economy.

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#3000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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40 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF CENTRAL BANK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIA ECONOMY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background of Study

The central bank of Nigeria CBN was establishing by the central bank of Nigeria act of 1958 and commences operations on the 1st of July 1959.

The principal objectives of the central bank of Nigeria was basically on the issuance of legal tender currency in Nigeria and the central bank of Nigeria is also saddle with the responsibility of maintaining the nations external reserve and value of the legal tender currency in other to safeguard the international value of the nation’s currency.

Some of the functions of the central bank of Nigeria also include promoting monetary stability and a sound financial system. They also serve as the banker and the financial adviser to the federal government on economy decisions. The CBN also serve as bankers to other banks within Nigeria and abroad.

The central bank of Nigeria play a major role in the development of Nigeria economy, the bank has been saddle with various responsibilities to ensure economy development.

The CBN has played a major role in the development of agriculture in the country through the Agricultural Credit Guaranty scheme Fund (ACGSF). The scheme was established by decree no. 20 of 1977, and started operation in April, 1978. Its original share capital and paid-up capital were one hundred million naira and eighty six million and six hundred thousand naira respectively. The federal government of Nigeria holds 60% and the central bank of Nigeria 40% of the shares. The capital based of the scheme was increase to three billion naira in March 2001. The funds guarantees credit fertilities to farmers. The fund is solely managed by the central bank of Nigeria which handles the day to day activities of the scheme.

The central bank of Nigeria has also play a vital role in the development of small and medium enterprises trough the establishment of the small and medium enterprise equity investment scheme. The scheme is a voluntary initiative of the bankers committee approved at its 26th meeting held on the 21st of December 1999. The initiative was in responsive of the federal government concerns and policy measures for the promotion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as vehicle for

rapid industrialization, sustainable economy development, poverty alleviation and employment generation.

The scheme require all bank in Nigeria to set aside ten (10) percent of their profit after tax for equity investment and promotion of small and medium scale enterprises. The ten (10) percent of the profit after tax to be set aside annually shall be invested in small and medium scale enterprises as the banking industry contribution to the government effort towards stimulating economy growth, developing local technology and generating employment. The central bank is saddle with the responsibility of ensuring absolute compliance of the banks towards the successful realization of the scheme.

The central bank of Nigeria established the infrastructure finance office on March 01 2010. The mandate of the office is to among others; evolve a sustainable financing frame work to stimulate long-term financing for infrastructural development in the country. The bank has undertaken some steps to improve the sectors as follows;

The bank provided three hundred billion fertility for investment in debentures to be issued by the bank of industry in accordance with section 31 of the CBN act 2007, for investment in power and aviation projects. As part of measures by the CBN to further encourage banks to lend to the real sector of the economy, particularly SMEs, infrastructural and agriculture, the board of directors of the bank has approved the amendment of the prudential guidelines on loan loss provisioning and rule and regulations on margin lending.

We can’t talk about the role the central bank of Nigeria has played on the Nigeria economy without mentioning the impact the CBN bank consolidation. The central bank recent reform (consolidation) that employed certain measure to strengthen the Nigeria banking system by drastically increasing the minimum capital requirement from two million naira to twenty-five billion naira. Through review of policy documents official report and economic information on the banking sector, it became evident the consolidation of banks led to a remarkable reduction of banks from 89 to 25 by merge, acquisition, initial public offer and other means. The bank consolidation has resulted in making banks more efficient and reliable and also, their intermediary potentials have also been revised.

Statement of Problem

The central bank of Nigeria must ensure its streamline the number of project in its entire department in other to ensure adequate funding of those projects. Funding of major project could serve as a limitation to the central bank in actualizing the implementations of it various projects that are expected to enhance the Nigeria economy.

Corruption as we all know is the order of the day in Nigeria, so, for the successful management of funds the central bank must makes sure it does not allow corrupt persons into its system of operations.

The activities of the central bank must not be politicized in any way in other to ensure equity in the disbursement of funds and in taking on special project across the six geo-political zones of the country.

Purpose of Study

The central bank on Nigeria must adhere to it policies in other to enhance economy growth in Nigeria and also in the banking and financial sector of the nation’s economy.

Hence, the fundamental purpose of this study is:

To access the impact of the central bank on the banking industry

To examine the impact of the central bank of the nation’s economy

To identify the benefit of the central bank so far.

To identify the effect of the central bank and other financial institution in sustaining the Nigeria economy

 

Research Questions

This study attempt to provide answers to the following research questions:

 How do you view the central bank in relation to economic development?

 Do you think the central bank policy on the Nigeria economy has had any impact on the economy?

 Has there been any improvement in the country economy ever since the central bank was created

 Are the Nigeria banks strong and trusted enough in spite of the CBN policy on consolidation?

 

 

 In your own view do you think the central bank has affected the nation’s economy positively or negatively?

 How would you rate the impact of the central bank on the manufacturing sector of the economy?

 How does the attitude of Nigerians affect the policies of the central bank?

 

Hypothesis

Looking at the main purpose of this research, it will be reasonable to propose that:

1) Ho: the state of the Nigeria economy has not improve since the establishment of the central bank

 

Hi: the state of the Nigeria economy has improve since the establishment of the central bank

11) Ho: the central bank is not strong and trusted enough to fully implement all its proposed economy policies.

Ho: the central bank is strong and trusted enough to fully implement all its proposed economy policies.

Significance of Study

 The significance of this study is to add to the general body of knowledge, enlighten the general public on the following:

 The impact of central bank on the Nigeria economy

 The impact of the central bank in reducing the poverty level of the nation’s economy

 To bring to light the activities of the central bank in general.

 To show to investors and the general public that the state of banks has undergone a lot of changes through the consolation policy of the central bank.

 

Limitation of study

This research works is basically on the impact of central bank in the development of Nigeria economy. The study will concentrate and will not go beyond the showing the impact of the central bank on the Nigeria economy.

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#10000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

40 days ago 0 Comments Short URL