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THE ROLE OF PLANNING AND FORECASTING IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF EASTERN SHOP NIGERIA LIMITED OGUI ENUGU, ENUGU STATE)

THE ROLE OF PLANNING AND FORECASTING IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF EASTERN SHOP NIGERIA LIMITED OGUI ENUGU, ENUGU STATE)

 

ABSTRACT

The role of planning and forecasting in business organization is a topic chosen from the business administration and management field.

The research was conducted mainly to examine the positive and negatives effects of not making good use of planning and forecasting in the business administration of an organization. For effective research on this topic THE ROLE OF PLANNING AND FORECASTING IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION. Both primary and secondary data were used to elicit information from sample studied, the primary source of data were response form the personal interview which secondary source form textbook on business management and administration and periodicals.

Twenty-five people were interviewed as the sample of the staff and management of EASTERN SHOP NIGERIA LTD.

The data analysis was based on oral interview I had with the staff of Eastern Shop (twenty five) the major finding as follows.

  • Ø The planning and Forecasting is aids to correct mismanagement in business organization.
  • Ø And the planning and forecasting gives go ahead over to any individual organization that is going into business to make judicious use of forecasting and planning as a way of success in any business.
  • Ø Poor Forecasting attitude and inadequate planning
  • Ø Poor Integration of Forecasting and planning in running of business.

 

                                      TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  INTRODUCTION

1.2  BACKGROUND OF THE SUBJECT MATTER

1.3.   STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

 

1.4.THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY  

1.5.  DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS

CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE:

3.1.THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBJECT MATTER

3.2. SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT WITHIN THE SUBJECT AREA.

3.3.  TYPES OF PLANNING

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.1.        SCHOOL OF THOUGHT RELEVANT TO THE SUBJECT MATTER.

4.2. FORECASTING OF PROFIT  IN ORGANIZATION:

4.3.  DIFFERENT METHOD OF STUDYING THE PROBLEMS:

CHAPTER FIVE:
5.1.     DATA PRESENTATION

5.2  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

5.3  RECOMMENDATION

5.4  CONCLUSION

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1  INTRODUCTION

Andreas Faludi states that “Planning and Forecasting is the Queen Mother function of management (organization) and that if planning and forecasting fail what/who will you direct, control, budget, staff, co-ordinate or organize rather than failure and shame”. Again he state of tension resulting from observing unexpected events. (Toulinin,1960).

Planning and Forecasting present efforts to reduce surprise caused by such events by giving practicable accounts of how they come about.”

 

WHAT IS PLANNING AND FORECASTING?

Forecasting is preparing of an organizational future objectives and its current material and personnel inventory, the general or departmental manager makes an estimate of the current material and human resources that will be able to do in the future and how many more human and material resources the organization must hire to meet its goals (Needle 1999:178).

Any business organization without element of forecasting in like driving a car blind- folded and being directed by a man looking out through the back window. Furthermore, forecasting is prediction; it is an effort by enterprises to know what the future holds for it. Henry Fayol speaks of prevalence as the essence of management.

According to Fayol “this looking ahead include both assessing the future and making provision for it.

Modern business management has become a complex activity and so there is the need for adequate forecasting, the need for adequate forecasting is apparent from the hey role it plays in planning Koontz et al stated that “as influence in plans of the entire environment outside the enterprises has come to be increasingly recognizes forecasting of the environment has risen in importance”.

The role of forecasting in business organization is so important that it must be adapted by managers. The making of forecasting and their review by manager compel thinking ahead looking to the future and providing for it. Also, the very act of forecasting may disclose areas where necessary control is lacking.

PLANNING:

Andreas Faludi state “Man’s understanding of this world and his ability to act in it depends on his constructing an imaginary in his own mind this applies equally well to the planner’s understanding of himself and his appreciation”. Planning in its simplest meaning is the determination of anything in advance of action. Planning is defined by Koontz O. Donneil as, “deciding in advance what to do who is to do it, when to do it and why it should be done”.

Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to go planning can also be defined as “ a predetermined cause of action that helps to provide purpose and direction for members of an enterprise.

In designing an environment for effective performance of individual working together in groups, the most essential task is to see that purpose and objective and methods of attaining them are clearly understood. Planning is the first function of a manager. It is necessary if anything or activities is to reach the denied goal. Through planning a manager can approach pre-determined objective rationally. All the work of an executive whether he know it or not, is some way connected with the unfolding of a plan. In identifying the role of planning in business organization, Koontz et al State that, “we are in an economic technological social and political era in which planning like other function of managers has become requisite for enterprise survival”.

Planning is unique in that it established the objective necessary for all group efforts.

Planning and Forecasting are important tools of company management and decision- making as they assist in the appraisal of investment project in the analysis measurement and improvement of current marketing strategy and manpower planning and in the identification and development of new products and new market further they promote and facilitate the proper functioning of the many aspects of company’s activities.

Planning and Forecasting are compliment in that for a good result both go together they could be regarded as independent parts that make a specified whole writing also in the concept, Koontz O’ Donneil states that forecasting especially where participated throughout the organization may help to unify and co-ordinate plans. By focusing attention on the future, it assists in bringing a singleness of purpose to planning”.

 

1.2  BACKGROUND OF THE SUBJECT MATTER

The popular super market called Eastern Shop was established in May 28, 1960 almost five (5) Months after the independence of this country, this took place at Ogui Road Enugu then Anambra State now Enugu State which is formerly known as the headquarters of Eastern Nigeria.

The supermarket is situated opposite Nnamdi Azikiwe Stadium and around it were other big shops like Bubble’s, ABC Transport etc. the amazing thing concerns this shop is that the manager or the sole proprietor is a family man that had engage in other business and finally settle in opening a big supermarket. He entered into the business with little or no experience in the field of supermarket business.

Originally the name of managing director of the supermarket is Chief M.O. Okoli, Ozo Zulu Agulu 1 of Agulu in Aniocha Local Government Area of (old and new) Anambra State. He is one of the pioneer members of Enugu State association of supermarket this was to enable him to curb some of the problems that he is passing and planning in business. The supermarket has other branches in Lagos, and Onitsha. In the establishment, he employed general operation manager (GOM) who sees to the running of the business. The company also has shop manager who direct the affairs of cashier, store manager and restaurant department and report to the GOM. Eastern shop is made up of five (5) departments/ units.

  • Ø Accounting department
  • Ø Cashier   department
  • Ø Store department
  • Ø Restaurant department
  • Ø Cold room department

Eastern shop deals mostly on consumer’s goods like cosmetics, wears, candy foods, baby wears and toys. The problem of proper planning and forecasting is among the major problem that limits the more expansion of the business these can be clearly seen from an adage that says “ that business is full of risks”.

Besides, the researchers were able to note the sum of N500 Naira was used as initial capital of the business and today the property of the business is on millions and it have more than twenty people as employees, this simply means that it is no longer small- scale business as the law required. But as a result of inadequate application role of good understanding in the techniques of forecasting and planning integration in business; he cannot make good pricing quality and quantity of product sales.

Since improper planning is as good as not planning at all based on the above promising and manifesting problem, these calls for the researchers to investigate the project topic to help the present situation that is facing the business.

1.3     PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER

It has obviously been proved that “He who fails to plans to fail” And it is also believed that he who fails to put records and recognizance of past event should not predict/ forecast future. If anybody that fails to envisage the future is bound to crash. Planning and forecasting have been integrated to be wonderful tools for effective management. Since planning and forecasting are like touch light used in darkness. We also believed that business dwell in the world of dynamism and unsteady setting, which called for effective use of planning and forecasting. It can also be seen as an eye at every business that wants to grow in a competitive environment.

Even the Bible says, “Where there is no vision, people perish” in this context vision, which sight in modern business management, is planning and forecasting. Moreover Hosea 4:6 said “my people perish for lack of knowledge” likewise many business collapses because of inadequate knowledge of planning of forecasting. It is because of these present problems and eminent problems which many business are encountering and also will encounter in future that make the researchers to bring out the topic title planning and Forecasting in Business Organization” from the light of the above, it is approved that for a society to progress is to embrace planning forecasting.

Peter Drunker said that “Planning and forecasting, which is aspect of management is doing not knowing” therefore, we should know that planning must he practicalized not nursing or desire in the heart. It is a thing of paramount importance to see that problems or courses of liquidation of many business is as a result of lack of adequate planning and forecasting.

Moreover, this project necessitate a result that few people and some organization that recognized the roles of planning and forecasting they so it any how, without knowing that planning is “QUEEN MOTHER” of all the management and if it fails what/how then will you direct organize control staff and budget it to and so on. This issue of poor attitude and low understanding of the role or meaning and importance of twin brothers planning and forecasting makes business not to grow well, talk more of progressing. And if any one will progress at all without planning it will be by trying and error or miracle working or simply put just by chance or luck but planning of business is a well program oriented profit venture or business.

In attempt to plan as may think they do only half bake planning which is as good as not planning at all in which most of their planning   has

Found wanting because it lacks the basic elements of planning as regards as follow.

a)     Futuristic in outlook that is planning some future problem of business at today’s doorsteps beside that future can never be predicted with hundred percent efficiency. This is why provision has to be made to accommodate future uncertainties.

b)     Most people in their planning lacks action, all planning need to imitate action since mere stating of the expected income and expenditure during fiscal year calls for action to make sure that the objectives are realized.

c)     Most of these planning fails to identify manpower that will the active action since every-body in an organization cannot take action and also to identify at what point or time the action are to be taken.

The most disturbing and annoying issue that manifest in this lack of planning and forecasting in business, that makes the researchers to write on planning and forecasting as this topic is the NATURE LESS in mode of their planning. Since most organization fails to adopt generalized approved nature of planning by all management according to WILLIAM NEWMAN 1963. He said that the essential nature of planning could be highlighted by the four major aspects of planning.

1.   Contribution to purpose and objective primacy of planning, perverseness of planning and efficiency of plans. People fail to understand the needs of appreciate planning process; this also, magnified needs of this project topic. All planning process must obey rules of goal setting, strategy formulation, recognition of some elements. Beside

Some people that tries to apply the process fails to update with the modifies process by an author Nwachukwu C.C. who in his book called management theory and practice says that it is done an six step process which is shown in the diagram below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               PLANNING PROCESS

All these challenges put together, makes the researcher to found it duly worthy to write on this topic, to revive and resurrects a dead and sick business organization by the power of wonderful role of inseparable twin brothers which is planning and forecasting, since planning and forecasting is queen mother of all management function and if it fails what or who and how will one (business manager) direct, control budget staff and so on and so fort. It is nothing rather than to co-ordinate failure and shame.

Management today, betides in management by objectives (MBO). This project will also have its objective to draw the problem nearer home and to expose the thought obviously.

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to 08139462710 or 08137701720

 

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OR

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Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

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CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

 

 

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY, 9TH MILE CORNER, ENUGU).

THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY, 9TH MILE CORNER, ENUGU).

 

 

CHAPTER ONE:  Introduction

1.1           Background of the study

1.2           Statement of the problem

1.3           Purpose of the study

1.4           Scope of the study

1.5           Research Hypothesis

1.6           Research Question

1.7           Significance of the study

1.8           Limitation of the study

1.9           Definition of terms

Reference

CHAPTER TWO:  Review of Related Literature

2.1           The role of communication in an organization

2.2           The communication process

2.3           Channels/Methods of Communication

2.4           Methods of Communication

2.5           Communication Types

2.6           Communication Barriers

2.7           Principles of Effective/Good Communication

Reference

CHAPTER THREE: Research Design and Methodology

3.1           Research Designs

3.2           Area of the study

3.3           Population of the study

3.4           Sample and sampling procedures/techniques

3.5           Instrument for data collection

3.6           Validation of the instrument

3.7           Reliability of the instrument

3.8           Method of data collection

3.9           Method of Data Analysis

Reference

CHAPTER FOUR: Data presentation and Analysis

4.1           Presentation and Analysis

4.2           Testing of Hypothesis

4.3           Summary of Results

CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations.

5.1           Discussion of Results/Findings

5.2           Conclusions

5.3           Implication(s) of the research findings

5.4           Recommendations

5.5           Suggestions for further research

Reference

Bibliography

Appendages

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 4i.              Method(s) used to transmit information in the company.

Table 4ii.             The General Attitude to work as regards communication system in the company.

Table 4iii.           Direction of communication

Table 4iv.            Channelling of Grievance and Suggestions

Table 4v.             How Employees value the Importance of communication in the company.

Table 4vi.            Rating of Communication by the Company.

Table 4vii.          Methods of Communication that is most effective in the company for organizational performance.

Table viii.           Delegation of Authority adopted within the company.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Many organization encounter various problems in communication within or outside the organization.  Due to this fact, the researcher deemed it necessary to research into various communication techniques/system, methods and channels of communication adopted by Nigerian Bottling Company Plc in the achievement of an organizational performance.

The aims of this write-up was actually to determine the adequacy of communication system in Nigerian Bottling Company and also the possible barriers, that would hinder the effectiveness of the system which in turn effects the organization performance.  In carrying out this research, review of related authors works were actually barriers principle and importance of communication.

To ascertain the people opinion on the adequacy and the possible communication barriers, there would be no other way of determining the opinion of different individuals than through questionnaires, oral interview and observation.

From the questionnaires, presentation of analysis and interpretation of data were drawn.  Showing that there were certain communication barriers that hinder organization performances.  Some recommendation were then deduced from the finding which the researcher feels that if management adopted it may improve the role of communication system in Nigerian Bottling Company.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Communication consists of all the processes by which information is transmitted and received.  The subject matter may include facts, intentions, attitudes etc. and the chief purpose of communication is to make the receiver to understand what is in the mind of the sender.

Therefore, communication is incomplete unless it is received and understood.  As the usual outcome of the understanding is change in behaviour, effective communication can be regarded as part of a learning process.

Every organization depends for its daily operations on intricate communication network, which has improved over the years and has proved itself indispensable.  The bigger the firm, the more elaborate the system becomes, and the greater the likelihood of expensive and time wasting.  Mistake caused by the misunderstanding of the system from the psychological point of view, communication have a value which goes beyond the transmission and reception of information.  The form which a communication takes profoundly effect the attitude of the employees and the degree to which they understand and support management policies.  Many individual disputes originate from the failure of communication the understanding by the employees of the intentions of management or a misinterpretation of company’s policy.

1.1           THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:

Communication is fundamental to the existence of every human organization and it is so vital that without it no organization can succeed.  Infact, communication is indispensable to human existence. Because one must like to communicate with people around him or her to share experience, ideas and feelings.

In an organization, one can only imagine what would happen if no communication exists.  The employees will like to know when changes especially those that will affect them are about to make place.  They will like to know what is expected of them in the organization to act in accordance with the standard rules and regulation and to let their feeding, desires, aspirations and effects to be known and recognized.  Other members of the organization particularly the management.  A good organization is the one which derives its objective from those of its members and this can only be achieved by establishing an effective down-ward, upward and lateral communication system.  Hence, many organization plans was not successfully achieved, due to the poor communication channel used.

1.2           STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

This study to solve the following research problems on the role of communication in an organization performance especially in Nigerian Bottling Company seeks to answer the following questions:

1.      The company lacks modernized or latest communication gadgets.

2.      The company experience poor communication channel.

3.      Some managers are disillusioned because major decision affecting their departments are taken without them being included.

4.      Most of the important directives given are treated with little or no seriousness.

5.      Little of the information in the organization comes through grapevine.

6.      Overloading of information towards the junior staff.

7.      Some of the workers are illiterate and cannot read and write.

 

 

1.3           PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:

The purpose of this study is to find out the communication techniques and system used by the Nigerian Bottling Company Plc.  And the determining of the effectiveness of such techniques and the system for effective organization performance.  The major channels of barriers to effective communicating in the industry includes classifying any assumptions, avoiding semantic distortion, goody expressing of messages, polarization and discouraging of nonverbal messages.

Also, the company resolute conflicts through analyzing of the problem, identifying the needs of each of the parties searching for alternatives and having a careful attitude towards criticism.  Also to recommend the best advertising strategy a firm can adopt to produce effectively.

1.4           SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

The impact of communication for effective organization performance in Nigeria affects almost all aspects of the organization but given the limited time and available resources, it is unreliable to contemplate on all the organisations in Nigeria of Enugu State.

Hence the study is consequently limited to Nigerian Bottling Company Plc, Nsude, 9th Mile Corner near Enugu.  This firm has been selected with the hope that information from it will help us to identify the effect of communication in the organization performance of the company.

1.5           RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

1.      What are the methods of disseminating effective communication in the organization?

2.      Do the employees of the company know what is expected from them.

3.      What are the importance of communication to the company?

4.      How efficient is management in ensuring that the barriers to the effective communication are carefully eliminated?

5.      What are the barriers to effective communication?

1.6           RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

H1:    Proper delegation of authority has been adopted by the Nigerian Bottling Company Ltd.

Ho:    Proper delegation of authority has not been adopted by the Nigerian Bottling Company Ltd.

H1:    Workers channel their grievances and suggestions direct to the management.

Ho:    Workers do not channel their grievances and suggestions direct to the management.

H1:    The attitude of workers as regards the system of communication in the company is very good.

Ho:    The attitude of workers as regards the system of communication in the company is not very good.

H1:    Employees value the importance of communication to the company.

Ho:    Employees do not value the importance of communication to the company.

H1:    The communication rating in the company is very high.

Ho:    The communication rating in the company is not very high.

H1:    The direction of communication in the company is downward-upward flow.

Ho:    The direction of communication in the company is not downward-upward flow.

 

1.7           LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:

Conducting an empirical research is not an easy task, even for a competent researcher.  This research on the role of communication for effective organizational performance was not an exception to the usual constraints and other problems associated with similar researchers in our society.  Environment problem vary from one place to another, depending on such factors as the temperament of the respondents, the nature of the research level of education of the respondent.

Despite the above fact is external to the researcher personal constraints such as limited time, limited resources, finance, inadequate data and secrecy of certain records were encountered.

1.8           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

The researcher therefore aims at focusing the attention of business managers to the importance of communication in business organisation.

Specifically, this study will be of great help to Nigerian Bottling Company, their customers and of course the researcher and the academic world.

It will benefit the company a lot by helping them to know the best media or medium to use.

The academic world, this study is expected to increase the store of knowledge.  The researcher stands opportunity to gain from the study in areas of communication.  Students and lecturers benefits from this research work also.

1.9           DEFINITION OF TERMS:

The following terminologies are defined to reflect their meanings in this project.

Role:

This means the functions or the duty which a person or a thing performs or ought to perform.

Communication:

According to Hybels and Weave (1986, p.6), communication is a process in which people share information, ideas and feelings.  Also it can be defined as the process of transmitting and receiving information.


Organisation:

An organisation refer to when people come together to work in pursuit of common goals, they establish a hierarchy of authority in other to attain the common goals, they also in the process divide tasks according to members area of specialization so that the human resources within the organisation can be properly harnessed to achieve the set objectives.

Performance:

This refers to as the notable action or achievement.

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to 08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)Your project topics

(2) Email Address

(3) Payment Name

(4)Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

 

 

 

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND POLICIES (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND POLICIES

(A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

In all business enterprise the need for effective management of organizational policies and procedures in very important and can never be over emphasized and to achieve this goal target and objective it is beckoned on the design of managers who do not sit there as a ceremonial heads rather they house role of implanting the organic functions of management in today’s dynamic and competitive business environment in Nigeria.   His works is design to expose and aid the serious minded managers to be adequately equipped to the challenges a head as future management practitioners in business.  And when adequate implementation of policies and procedure is not there business world will be greatly affected.

In generating data needed to achieve the objective of this study crosses-sectional survey was used. Questionnaires was used as he major instrument for primary data collection.  To broaden the researcher’s depth of knowledge in the study area the research embarks on review of related literature with data drawn from secondary sources.  Data generated in the study was presented on frequency tables and analyzed using simple percentage while the hypothesis were tested with chi -square (x2).

It was found at the and of the research work that most organization cannot get the best out of their workers or reach to their option goal target and objective because of from management of organizational policies and procedure in Nigeria business workers are not allowed to join in decision making that concerns them.

From the findings existence of these policies and procedures in one things awareness and utilization management on the part of the employee because another things and if not taken care of it will greatly affect the whole things as for as business is concern. Some of the policies and procedure are not in time with survival of the fittest in the banking industry changes in technology necessitate changes in policies.

Finally the need fore effective management of organizational policies and procedure most be more sensitive to customers and also in order to up grade the workforce with exquisite training and motivation which is the main target.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of study.

1.2     Statements of problem.

1.3     Purpose of study

1.4     Scope of the study

1.5     Research hypothesis

1.5  Significance of the study

1.6  Definition of terms

Reference

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Review of related literature

2.2     The need for effective management policy

2.3     The need for effective management of organizational function

2.4     The need for effective control of organizational policies and procedure Nigeria business

2.5     Profit of union bank

2.6     Union bank operational rules and regulation and result.

2.7     Banking in Nigeria

2.8     The need for effective functions of bank generally

Reference

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1  Research design

3.2     Area of the study

3.3     Population of the study size

3.4     Instrument for data collection

3.5     Validation of the instrument

3.6     Reliability of the instrument

3.7     Method of data collection

3.8     Method of data analysis

Reference

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 4.1    Data presentation & analysis

4.1         Testing

4.2         Summary of result

Reference

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1  Discussion recommendation and conclusion

5.2  Discussion of result / findings

5.3  Conclusion

5.4  Implication of the research finding

5.5  Suggestion for furthers research

Bibliography

Journal

Appendix one

Appendix

References

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

The need for effective management of organizational policies and procedures must be more sensitive to customer are and also order to up grade the workforce with exquisite training and motivation so as to union a winner or devil a set objective which is the main target.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The need for effective management of organizational polices and procedure in Nigeria business encouraged delegation making to business managers who not sit there as ceremonial needs rather they have the role of managing the organic function of management in today’s dynamic and competitive business environment in Nigeria.  The research work is designed to expose aid the challenge ahead as future management parishioners in business.

Good policies provide definite and clear direction by top management and of the sometime allow subordinates to make their own decision with clearly stated limits. The usual sources of policies and procedure in Nigeria business embedded on managers and if is pertinent to mode that for a business to nation its position as a “going concern” entity, it is imperative that managers formulate policies plan effectively for the business enterprise. This is a major aspect of a task facing manager especially in a modern complex business situation. Therefore today mangers must take into consideration the following measures of the need for effective management of organizational policies and procedure in Nigeria business.

They must especially take into account the forces and trends such as environmental economics political sociological psychological technology legal and ethnical factors while formulating the policies that can facilitate the accomplishment of the overall objective and goals of the business in question.

Of course if a policy has been formulated but has not been carried out or implemented in action in cannot be effective since it has not come to the attention of the employee but it was the risk of being over cooked or misinterpreted, but according to Apala (1990: 59) he said that written polices are more precise and less prone to misunderstanding.

The need for effective management of organizational policies and procedure in Nigeria business to be properly executed the laid down rules guiding the organization must follow.

Procedure on the other land can so stated as the system that describes in details the step to be taken in order to accomplish a set objective in business which is the main target that head to the need for effective management of organizational policies and procedure emphasis more in detail while policies concentrate on the basis general approaches.  A policy is therefore a guide for making decision thus according to Apala (1990:59) the simply defines policies as guide lines to managerial actions while Coventry and Barker (1985:93) defines policies as the guideline laid down in general or specific terms to make organization to mach the expected target or objective

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This boils down to what constitute the problem on the study of the need for effective management of organizational policies and procedure in Nigeria business exist on its own it need employers who will work in implementing those policies needed for effective business environment and all those will not take expected standard unless workers are properly motivated given them required training internal and external incentive and their salary may even be increased paying them over time and case things will be moving haphazardly and it will constitute a lot of problem to the study.

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA (1970-2010)

THE IMPACT OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA (1970-2010)

 

ABSTRACT

The term unemployment can be defined as an economics condition marked by the fact that individual actively seeking jobs remain unhired. Unemployment is expressed as a percentage of the total available work force. The level of unemployment varies with economics conditions and other circumstances. This is mostly seen in graduate of various institutions of learning especially in under developed nations like Nigeria. The study was designed to investigate the impact of unemployment on economics growth in Nigeria of 41 years (1970-2010). The research focuses on determining the cause and impacts of unemployment, and how the problem of unemployment in Nigeria will be reduced, to a minimal level or even eradicated. It focuses on this objective is toa determine the relationship between unemployment and economic growth in Nigeria (GDP). The method of analysis used in testing the hypothesis is the hypothesis is the T-test, F-test etc. the major findings was that unemployment has a negative impact on the gross domestic product (GDP) of the Nigeria economy. Some suggestions and policy recommendations were made based on the findings. vi

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page i

Approval page ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of contents vi

CHAPTER ONE- INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study 1

1.2 Statement of the problem 6

1.3 Research Question 10

1.4 Objective of the study 10 vii

1.5 Statement of hypothesis 11

1.6 Importance of the study 11

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study 12

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Theoretical literature 13

2.2 Unemployment and economic growth: Theoretical

framework 21

2.3 Empirical literature 23

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology 30

3.1 Model Specification 31 viii

3.2 Methods of Evaluation 32

3.2.1 Economic Theoretical Test 33

3.2.2 Statistical Critical 34

3.2.3 Econometric critical 36

3.3 Data required source, Transformation 36

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Presentation of regression result 38

4.2 Economic Apriori Criteria 40

4.3 Statistical Criteria (First Order Test) 42

4.3.1Coefficient of Multiple Determinants (R2) 42

4.3.2 The student‟s T- test 42

4.3.3 F statistic 44 ix

4.4 Econometrics Criteria 46

4.4.1 Test for Autocorrelation 46

4.4.2 Normality Test for Residual 48

4.3.3 Test for Heteroscedasticity 49

4.4.4 Test for Multilcollinearity 51

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARYOF FINDING CONCLUTION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary 53

5.2 Conclusion 54

5.3 Recommendation 57

Bibliography 60

Appendix1

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Unemployment is generally agreed to be symptom of macro-economic illness which could be “voluntary” or in “Voluntary”. When is said voluntary I mean a condition where somebody chooses not to work because they have a means of support other than employment example is the idle rich man. On the other hand involuntary unemployment exists when persons are willing to work at the prevailing rate of pay but unable to find work. (Anyanwu 1995).

Balogun, ed et el (2003) also defined unemployed as the percentage of the percentage of the labour force that is without job, but is able and willing to work. In Nigeria however the ability and willingness to work is not sufficient. It is necessary for the unemployment to be registered with an employment bureau in order to be recognized as unemployed. Yet, from an economic viewpoint, 2

the unregistered unemployed are part of the labour force and are, therefore, technically unemployed. In Nigeria, unemployment data are obtained through labour force sample surveys which ask if the respondent has worked in the week preceding the survey. However, the international labour organization (ILO), realizing the shortcomings of the labour survey as it affects developing economies, such as Nigeria, with a large informal sector, has encouraged a review of the methodology to incorporate further disaggregation of respondent responses to bring out the true rate of unemployment.

In order to establish the type of unemployment existing in an economy, economists have classified unemployment as „frictional‟, „seasonal‟ „structural‟ or cyclical‟.

1. Frictional Unemployment occurs when people are temporarily out of work because they are changing jobs. This is

3

 

unavoidable in an economy in which both the labour force and the jobs on offer are continually changing.

2. Seasonal unemployment is said to occur in a situation in which people are laid off seasonally, due to the nature of the job they do, e.gagriculture workers in developing countries may be laid off during the growing season.

3. Structural unemployment is the unemployment that exists when an economy is in full employment. Structural unemployment occurs where employment in one or more declining industries is falling.

 

It is as result of movement in the natural employment rate itself, which can result from changes in labour market institutions, demographic shifts etc. this situation is brought about by economic variables, such as the level of aggregate demand and the actual and/or expected real wage rate. 4

 

4. Cyclical unemployment occurs as result of fluctuations around the natural employment rate, which can be attributed to changes in aggregate demand.

 

Industrial relations refer to the process of conflict resolution, such as collective bargaining, between employers and employees in the course of fulfilling an employment contact. It could be achieved either by conquest (when one party overwhelms the other), or by mutual consent. The latter, preferred outcome is likely to result from collective bargaining. Continuous industrial harmony is, therefore, often the result of positive industrial relations.

In Nigeria, unemployment is regarded as one of the most challenging economics problem facing the federal government. Although, there are variations in the measurement of unemployment, official estimates show their results as follows: from 1985-2003, the data shows a highly fluctuation trend from 5

both the urban and rural sectors of the economy. From the data, the 1985 figure shows the percentage of the national urban and rural unemployment as follows: national 6.10%, urban 9.8%m rural 5.2%and in year figure is as follows: national 3% urban 3.8% rural 2.7 %( CBN 2004).

The rising rate of the population of the country which is faster than the job opportunities, a situation in which birth rate is rising, death rate falling and the population growth rate is between 2.5% and 3% unemployment is bound to exist. There had been also a total neglect of the agricultural sectors and consequent mass exodus of able bodied youths from the rural to urban areas in search of the none existing while cooler jobs.

This further reduces employment in agriculture and puts pressure on existing urban jobs (Anyanwu 1995) 6

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Unemployment has reached a very alarming proportion in Nigeria, with a greater number of the unemployment being primary and secondary school learners and university graduates. This situation has recently been compounded by the increasing unemployment of professionals such as bankers, engineers and doctors. The toll is within the productive segment of the Nigeria population (Vision 2010).

The extent of unemployment in Nigeria in is not justified by the available financial statistics phenomenon. This is because of the nature of unemployment in the country where many job seekers do not see the need for registration as unemployed due to expression of futility in such exercise. This harnesses the sharp disparity between the official statistics on the phenomenon and the reality on ground (Bello 2003). Disguised unemployment otherwise known as concealed 7

unemployment is a situation in which more people are available for work than is shown in the unemployment statistics (Bannock et el 1998)

The problem of disguised unemployment is quite acute in Nigeria. This explains why official unemployment statistics sharply differs from the true state of employed or unofficial statistic available. The recorded figure unemployment significantly understates the number of people who are actually willing to work at the existing set of wage rate. Consequently, the unemployment figure in Nigeria is obtained through labour force sample survey, by asking if the person has worked in the past week preceding the survey.

Obviously, because even a graduate whohawks around respond yes to the question, the unemployment rate will always be very low.

Unemployment is a situation of a labour not having enough paid work or not doing work that makes full use of his skills and ability. It can be measured by the numbers of hours worked per week.

Generally in Nigeria, the official period of working time per week is forty hours which manyworkers fall short of due to non –availability of work. In some instance available work is rationed especially among the low skilled and casual labours in the formal sector tends to be worse (Bello 2003) therefore the major problem we have in Nigeria is the distinguished unemployment form. The official figures of the rate of unemployment form.

December1998, a total of 66.3% of male and 62.0% of female unemployment were recorded at the urban centres while rural centreshad an estimate of 47.1% and 45%male and female job seekers respectively. As at December 1999, school levers

unemployment rate had raised to 67.0% for males and 68.8% for females in the urban centres while the rural centres was as high as 59.1 and 55.7%. For male and female respectively (Bello 2003).For polytechnic and university graduates, the figures shows relatively low unemployment rate as compared to the school leavers experience. For instance, during the period under investigation a peak of 14.0% rate of unemployment was recorded for polytechnic female graduate in 1998 which the male graduate records had its peak in 1999 with 15.0% point in urban areas (Bello 2003). The graduate unemployment rate in the urban centres had 8.5 per cent record high in September 1999 for males and 4.5%in June 1999for female during the periods (Bello 2003).

Many people are frustrated by lack of unemployment‟s opportunities they include these without work and those who have jobs but want to work longer hours or more intensively. A 10

considerable size of utilized and underutilized labour abounds in Nigeria and which ought to be brought into the circle. These shows that Nigeria‟s employment problem has become chronic and should be a matter of utmost national concern.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION

From the above discussions the research question is:

Has unemployment had any impact on Nigeria economy?

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives that will guide this study are as follows;

1. To determine the relationship between unemployment and economic growth in Nigeria.

2. To ascertain the magnitude of this relationship.

3. To make policy recommendations based on the finding.

11

1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

The hypothesis that would guide this work is as follows;

1. H0: Unemployment has no significant impact on economic growth in Nigeria.

2. H1: Unemployment has no significant impact on the economic growth in Nigeria.

 

1.6 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

One of the macroeconomics goals of any country is the actualization of full employment. Therefore, unemployment in any system is seen as a policy failure and there is always concerted effort on the part of the government in checkmating the impact of unemployment in an economy. The study of unemployment is important to the policy makers, politicians, and student of economics.

To the policy makers ascertaining the rate of unemployment, in an economy to the desired height, the policy maker with the knowledge of the state of unemployment in the system stands the best chance of controlling it through appropriate initiative like poverty eradication programmes and creation of employment opportunities that touches the lives of the population.

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The limitation of this research were much and varying.

First was the difficulty in getting access to some relevant research documents. There were several cases of limited copies of materials.

The second constraint to this research was finance and time. The time allowed for the completion of this work was short, coupled with the fact that other academic work were in progress.

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF THE BAKING INDUSTRIES

THE IMPACT OF SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF THE BAKING INDUSTRIES

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1   THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Every industry operates within two sets of constraints. Internal constraints are those problems within the organization and over which the enterprise has reasonable amount of control. Personnel problem, capacity utilization and the techniques or process of production are some of such factors.

External factors could pose formidable problems to an enterprise. The problems are made more severe by the fact that these problems are caused by factors outside the competence of a given enterprise to control. Examples of such factors are government regulation, traditional or cultural values etc.

The bakery industry in Nigeria has been a victim of externally imposed constraint. Hitherto, bakers depended on local millers who produced their vital raw materials, flour from imported wheat. Government banned the importation of wheat and wheat product in 1986, thereby, sending shock waves to this very well established and expanding industry. Wheat products has started to consume an unacceptable amount of the nation’s foreign exchange as the table 1.1.1 below clearly demonstrates, as well as figure 1.1.1 in page 3.

Table 1.1.1 Foreign Exchange Spent on Wheat and Food Import 1981 – 1985

Import       1981         1982         1983         1984         1985

N,000        N,000        N,000        N,000        N,000

Total food  1,820,215  1,642,245  1,296,714  843,246     946,567

Wheat       159,422     79,629       255,717     243,067     327,870

C/o of total     9%         5%           20%           29%          35%`

Source: Federal Office of Statistics, Lagos

Given the above circumstances, there was a clear need for government action to check the outflow of the nation’s declining foreign exchange earnings through what important.

Besides, it can also be argued that there were suitable local substitutes of wheat flour for bread baking; rice, cassava, maize and sorghum have been  mentioned as such suitable substitutes. To some people these substitutes were at least as good as wheat as it

 

 

FIGURE 1.1.1

FOREIGN EXCHANGE SPENT ON WHEAT AND FOOD IMPORT

1981 – 1985                                                            

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Federal Office of Statistics, Lagos

was suggested that local bakers rejecting them were doing so our of ignorance, or out of a slavish preference for imported products or whether one accepts the above arguments or not, what has become clear is that the effect of the ban on the importation of wheat was swift devastating on the bakery industry.

In Enugu Urban alone, some famous baking houses closed up. Nigerline bakery, St Georges Bakery, many bakeries and Mother’s Pride Bakery all shut down between the middle of 1986 and the end of 1987. As at the time of starting this project, not every  Bakery has resumed operations.

A far more reaching effect on this ban on the industry as a whole is that it has quite clearly changes the eating habits of many Nigerians.

Ubiquitous bread on the breakfast table has vanished and the frequent sight of peoples snacking on bread in the afternoon has also disappeared.

The primary demand for bread products in this country has certainly contracted since then.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        Such is the background for this study. Most baking houses are small scale business who face the task of devising survival strategies to deal with major changes in government policy that threaten their very existence.

Our focus is on suitable survival strategies for the banking industry given their operating circumstances since 1986. We are interested in finding out how those who are still in business dealt with the new condition in which they found themselves. In particular, we will be looking at the organizational changes, financial management strategies, and other operating techniques that they had to adopt in order to survive.

As for the baking houses that closed down, we shall explore whether there were forces other that the ban on imported wheat that engendered their demise. The study will cover a broad section of the bakeries in Enugu urban. See Appendix A.

 

 

 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

        In general, the study hopes to take a close look at the baking houses in Enuguu urban since 1986. Specifically it is intended to find out the following:

(a)    What changes have those who continue to operate made in their structure and method of operation in order to cope with the ban?

(b)    What new financial arrangement have they made following rising production cost resulting from the ban?

(c)    Have they coped with the sourcing of raw materials?

(d)    What new challenges they now face three years after the ban or import flour?

For completeness, it is also necessary to examine the cases of those baking houses that were found to have closed down as a result of the ban. Although there may be problems obtaining information from some of these outfits, whose operating records may no longer be available, an effort would be made to access the general operating state of such baking houses before the ban. This should enable one determine whether such baking houses were already having serious operating difficulties before the ban or whether their extinction is to be blamed on the ban.

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

        This study should be of considerable interest to policy makers in government, to the bakers and distributors of bread products and consumers and to the public at large. The study hopefully, will give government some documented information on the effect of the major policy changes introduced in 1986. The information should enable government to establish what new measures need to be taken as well as provide some basis of determining in advance, the likely consequences of similar measures in future.

Bakers should use the study to understand fully the impact of the changes on their industry. The study will highlight how they have fared; the successful ones will see what it was that enabled them weather the consequences of the ban on wheat importation. Those who failed to do and indeed why they have ceased to be in business. In the end, the industry will be better placed to cope better with similar situations in the future.

The researcher’s understanding on the challenges and the survival strategies of small scale industries will be greatly impacted.

The bread consumers, through this work, shall gain first hand information of the difficulties the bakers go through to provide them with the bread they love to eat. They will better appreciate the need to pay a little more for this product.

The general reader will equally find the work a useful contribution to knowledge.

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

        In this study, the following hypothesis have been formulated:

1.     The ban on wheat importation did not cause any significant changes in the methods of operation of bakeries.

2.     New challenges faced by bakers are not as a result of ban on importation of wheat and its products.

3.     The sources of raw materials for bakeries remained unchanged after the ban on wheat importation.

4.     New financial arrangement are made by bakers are not as a result of the increase in costs of wheat flour.

5.     The ban on wheat importation did not cause the demise of a significant number of bakeries.

 

1.6   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

        The emphasis of this study is on small scale bakeries in Enugu Urban. The study intends specifically to investigate the impact of ban on wheat importation on bakeries and the strategies adopted by them to survive.

1.7   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

        This study was constrained by many factors among which were time, funds, and the unco-operative attitude of some respondents.

The researcher found the study very time demanding in data collection and production. Often the researcher is rebuked for being absent from work in process of carrying out the study. Owing to the pressure of work, more intensive and extensive investigation could not be carried out.

Some respondents were unwilling to complete the questionnaire, some others completed their own reluctantly.

The study turned out to be very expensive on purchase of materials, field work and production.

 

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING IN EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF PARASTATALS (A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL ELECTRIC POWER AUTHORITY ENUGU STATE)

THE IMPACT OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING IN EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF PARASTATALS

 

(A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL ELECTRIC POWER AUTHORITY ENUGU STATE)

 

ABSTRACT

 

The growth and innovation in the field of science and technology and the complex nature of modern business activities and the need for the expert handling of modern equipment and budget I call for the urgent training and development of organization manpower resources in order to meet these challenges.

Today, we know that our problem is not how to avoid change but how to analyze the victim that all development spells opportunity and get ourselves equipped to handle the increasing complexity in manpower and managerial activities.

The research work undertake a survey of the manpower development policies and programmes of the National Electric Power Authority and found that though there exists an established policy and programmes for employee development there polices and programmes are deficient in content and complementation.

Based on the followings, we suggested an immediate review of the training and development policy and programme in order to make it more functional and adaptable to the present and future needs of corporations intended objectives.

In carrying out the research, oral interview and research questionnaire were used.  The analysis of the questionnaire was done based on percentages.  Allowing the greater or less than factor to influence the judgment either by mollified the oral interview responses gotten.  The work is divided into five chapters.  The first chapter contains the statements of problem and purposes of the study.  Three assumptions were made as forming basis for the study.

In chapter two, relevant literature on manpower development and man power development problems, methods and strategies were reviewed.  In chapter three, the research methodology and source of data are presented.  Chapter four contains the presentation and analysis of data and test of hypothesis.  The chapter five contains summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendation.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

1.1  Background of the study

1.2     Statement of problem

1.3     Objective of the study

1.4     Significance of the study

1.5     Scope of the study

1.6     Limitation of the study

1.7     Research question

1.8     Hypothesis

1.9     Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review

2.1  Defining manpower training and development

2.2     Areas and objectives of manpower development

2.3     Aims and objectives of manpower development

2.4     Methods and types of manpower development

2.5     Determination of development needs

2.6     Steps in designing a manpower development programmes

2.7     Manpower development problems

2.8     Manpower development in Nigeria

References

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research design and methodology

3.1  Introduction to the study

3.2     Area of study

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sample size determination

3.5     Instrument for data collection

3.6     Validation of the instrument

3.7     Reliability of the instrument

3.8     Methods of data collection

3.9     Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

4.1     Testing of hypothesis

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation

5.1     Summary of findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

5.4     Bibliography

5.5     Research questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

Contemporary thoughts on national development and growth emphasizes the need for the training and retaining of the human resources and economic independence of the nations.  The objectivity of this assertion becomes apparent when viewed against the background of the study.  Damages wrecked on the socio-political and economic structure and integrity of most independent developing nations by foreign interest acting under pretension of assisting them in their development efforts.

The realization of complete independence is therefore a function of an effective development strategies and efficient utilization of a country’s potentials studies shows that most countries are blessed with abundant natural resources.  They lock the basic technology for transforming and maximizing the benefits of these natural endowment resulting from the under development of the human portentous.

Since Nigeria gained her independence in 1960, we have been faced with the challenge of providing adequate and effective manpower need for the management of our economic resources.

Our inability to provide for the necessary manpower need results in the inefficient and under utilization of the abundant economic resources.  Most organization in Nigeria is so much concerned with the profits maximization, they ignore the need for training their workers, and instead, they consider the money they will spend on their training programme as waste rather than as an investment.  The fail to foresee the desirability of continuous retaining and development of their workers in order to promote the efficiency and effectiveness of their organisation. Consequently instead of growing, the business rather fails and much capital wasted.

Commenting on the general poor development of the Nigerian workers, W.R. Haires observed that the Nigerian workers are under used, under employed, frustrated and preventive from bringing their talents to bear on the well-being of their employers, organisation and the nation at large.

Manpower development is a dynamic process, in other words, it is a response to change in the beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of individuals so that they can better adopt new techniques and challenges.

In recognition of the need for the training and development of the human potentials and resources of employees as a means of achieving organizational objectives and goal with efficiency and effectiveness, the National Electric Power Authority established a training policy for her employee.  In pursuance of this noble objective of manpower development and training by the organization, a lot of difficulties arises which affected the success of the programme.  This research work is therefore directed towards an evaluation of the manpower development and training programme of the corporation with a view to identifying problem areas (where any) and making suggestions on ways of achieving greater successes in their manpower development efforts.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

After an employee has been recruited and inducted, his skills must be updated and developed to better fit into the job and the organisation.  The need for training and developing the employee not only arises from the fact that he might not fit in the job posses the necessary skill needed in the job but have the effect of the dynamic nature of the society influenced by changes in the field of science and technology necessitated the continuous improvement of worker’s skill and the sill he expected to have in order better fit into the new job demands is bridged by manpower training.

Many organizations have over the years established good manpower training and development programmes in order incite better employee performance at work and increased productivity.  Good development programmes have not always been easy to attain in organization because of the forces that impede against the achievement of their objectives.  Some of the impeding forces include selections or recruitment problems, training procedure and inadequate facilities, government policy, the economy and labour legislation.  The crucial problems this research will address includes:

  1. The problem of inadequate manpower resources in the National Electric Power Authority.
  2. The lack of functional manpower development programmes.
  3. The under utilization of available manpower resources.

 

A critical analysis of these problems will be done with a view to determining their causes and consequences on the corporation.  The researcher will also make contribution on ways of redressing the problems.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The decision to research on this field of human development results from my interest in the areas of manpower planning and development as it occupies a strategic position in the effective and efficient realization of organization’s goal.

Apart from giving the reader a general idea of what manpower training and development entails, this study is designed to examine and clarify the following issues:-

1)          To identify the manpower training and development programme of the National Electric Power Authority.

2)          To determine the impact of this programme on workers performance.

3)          To identify the problem which negatively affect the successful implementation of the programme and achievement of the desires result.

4)          Make recommendation on ways of ensuring greater successes in future.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STYDY

We have noted earlier in this research the important role of manpower training and development in achieving organizational goal.  We also noted the problem of lack of well-developed, specialized and dynamic management that will be capable of harnessing the development.

The significance of the study therefore in it’s potentiality in serving as a reference took for both individual organization and government policy makers who desire to eliminate all and avert obstacles associated with manpower planning.

It will also be of immense benefit particularly in the organizers and executors of manpower development and training programmes in National Electric Power Authority.  This is because the clearly identified problem areas in the design and implementation of manpower development programmes.  This research will also discuss various manpower development and training related issues and suggests ways that can be adopted to solve manpower training and development problems.

 

1.5     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research is concerned with the impact of the manpower development programme of the National Electric Power Authority, Enugu state.

The NEPA. as we know is federal parastatals, it has three divisions viz, the eastern, northern and southern division with headquarter at Lagos.

The focus in the eastern division of the corporation is not suggestive of a ….. policy in the management policy of the organisaiton rather it is supposed to provide a guide to the understanding of the entire organisation division given the persuading circumstances.

Equally it is believed and hoped that much is not lost by limiting the study to the eastern division because given the centralization policy of the organisation, every part is supposed to bear the same major characteristics element with the rest of the other divisions.

1.6     LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

In carrying out this research, some basic problems were encountered which to an extent influenced the debtnesses of the research primary among this problems include:-

Lack of statistical data, contain information sought for are either totally unavailable or cannot be released to the pubic, despite all these short comings, much effort was indeed made to ensure that these problems does not outweigh the desire ability or need to carryout a sound research.

 

1.7     RESEARCH QUESTION

The following research questions would be necessary to make this research a success.

1.    Is there any programme of manpower training and development in National Electric Power Authority, Enugu?

2.    Do National Electric Power Authority Enugu attach importance to manpower development and training?

3.    Has manpower development and training helped National Electric Power Authority in meeting the problems or challenges of the complex nature of modern business activities or get equipped to handle the increasing complexity in their managerial activities?

4.    Is there any significant impact of manpower development and training in efficient management of National Electric Power Authority, Enugu?

 

1.8     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following research hypothesis are used for this study.

Where H0:     Stands for null hypothesis

Hi:   Stands for alternative hypothesis

1.    H0:  There is no significant impact of manpower development in efficient management of parastatals.

2.    H0:  There is a significant impact of manpower development in efficient management of parastatals.

3.    H0:  There is no improvement of manpower development in efficient management of parastatals.

4.    Hi:   There is an improvement of manpower development in efficient management of parastatals.

 

1.9     DEFINITION OF TERMS

To allow for better understanding of this research, it is considered necessary that some of the key terms used be defined or described.

1.    Manpower:    Manpower, which is developed through human capital formation, means much more than population or labour force.  Manpower in the economic sense is the managerial, scientific engineering technical, craftsman and other skills which are employed on creating, designing, developing, organizational managing and operating productivity services enterprises and economic institutions.

2.    Development:      After the employee has recruited selected and inducted, he or she must be developed to better fit into the job and the organization.

Again, that development would include both training to increase skill in performing a specific job and education to increase general knowledge and understanding of our total work environment.

 

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING IN EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF PARASTATAL (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA RAILWAY CORPORATION EASTERN DIVISION ENUGU)

THE IMPACT OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING IN EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF PARASTATAL

(A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA RAILWAY CORPORATION EASTERN DIVISION ENUGU)

 

ABSTRACT

 

The growth and innovation in the field of science and technology and the complex nature of modern business activities and the need for the expert handling of modern equipment and budget I call for the urgent training and development of organization manpower resources in order to meet these challenges.

Today, we know that our problem is not how to avoid change but how to analyze the victim that all development spells opportunity and get ourselves equipped to handle the increasing complexity in manpower and managerial activities.

The research work undertake a survey of the manpower development policies and programmes of the Nigeria Railway Corporation and found that though there exists an established policy and programmes for employee development there polices and programmes are deficient in content and complementation.

 

Based on the followings, we suggested an immediate review of the training and development policy and programme in order to make it more functional and adaptable to the present and future needs of corporations intended objectives.

 

In carrying out the research, oral interview and research questionnaire were used.  The analysis of the questionnaire was done based on percentages.  Allowing the greater or less than factor to influence the judgment either by mollified the oral interview responses gotten.  The work is divided into five chapters.  The first chapter contains the statements of problem and purposes of the study.  Three assumptions were made as forming basis for the study.

 

In chapter two, relevant literature on manpower development and man power development problems, methods and strategies were reviewed.  In chapter three, the research methodology and source of data are presented.  Chapter four contains the presentation and analysis of data and test of hypothesis.  The chapter five contains summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the study

1.2     Statement of problem

1.3     Objective of the study

1.4     Significance of the study

1.5     Scope of the study

1.6     Limitation of the study

1.7     Research question

1.8     Hypothesis

1.9     Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1  Defining manpower training and development

2.2     Areas and objectives of manpower development

2.3     Aims and objectives of manpower development

2.4     Methods and types of manpower development

2.5     Determination of development needs

2.6     Steps in designing a manpower development programmes

2.7     Manpower development problems

2.8     Manpower development in Nigeria

References

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Design And Methodology

3.1  Introduction to the study

3.2     Area of study

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sample size determination

3.5     Instrument for data collection

3.6     Validation of the instrument

3.7     Reliability of the instrument

3.8     Methods of data collection

3.9     Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

4.1     Testing of hypothesis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation

5.1     Summary of findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

5.4     Bibliography

5.5     Research questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

Contemporary thoughts on national development and growth emphasize the need for the training and retaining of the human resources and economic independence of the nations.  The objectivity of this assertion becomes apparent when viewed against the background of the study.  Damages wrecked on the socio-political and economic structure and integrity of most independent developing nations by foreign interest acting under pretension of assisting them in their development efforts.

The realization of complete independence is therefore a function of an effective development strategies and efficient utilization of a country’s potentials studies shows that most countries are blessed with abundant natural resources.  They lock the basic technology for transforming and maximizing the benefits of these natural endowment resulting from the under development of the human portentous.

Since Nigeria gained her independence in 1960, we have been faced with the challenge of providing adequate and effective manpower need for the management of our economic resources.

Our inability to provide for the necessary manpower needs results in the inefficient and under utilization of the abundant economic resources.  Most organization in Nigeria is so much concerned with the profits maximization, they ignore the need for training their workers, and instead, they consider the money they will spend on their training programme as waste rather than as an investment.  The fail to foresee the desirability of continuous retaining and development of their workers in order to promote the efficiency and effectiveness of their organization.  Consequently instead of growing, the business rather fails and much capital wasted.

 

Commenting on the general poor development of the Nigerian workers, W.R. Haires observed that the Nigerian workers are under used, under employed, frustrated and preventive from bringing their talents to bear on the well-being of their employers, organization and the nation at large.

Manpower development is a dynamic process, in other words, it is a response to change in the beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of individuals so that they can better adopt new techniques and challenges.

In recognition of the need for the training and development of the human potentials and resources of employees as a means of achieving organizational objectives and goal with efficiency and effectiveness, the Nigeria railway corporation established a training policy for her employee.  In pursuance of this noble objective of manpower development and training by the organization, a lot of difficulties arises which affected the success of the programme.  This research work is therefore directed towards an evaluation of the manpower development and training programme of the corporation with a view to identifying problem areas (where any) and making suggestions on ways of achieving greater successes in their manpower development efforts.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

After an employee has been recruited and inducted, his skills must be updated and developed to better fit into the job and the organization.  The need for training and developing the employee not only arises from the fact that he might not fit in the job posses the necessary skill needed in the job but have the effect of the dynamic nature of the society influenced by changes in the field of science and technology necessitated the continuous improvement of worker’s skill and the sill he expected to have in order better fit into the new job demands is bridged by manpower training.

Many organizations have over the years established good manpower training and development programmes in order incite better employee performance at work and increased productivity.  Good development programmes have not always been easy to attain in organization because of the forces that impede against the achievement of their objectives.  Some of the impeding forces include selections or recruitment problems, training procedure and inadequate facilities, government policy, the economy and labour legislation.  The crucial problems this research will address include:

  1. The problem of inadequate manpower resources in the Nigeria railway corporation.
  2. The lack of functional manpower development programmes.
  3. The under utilization of available manpower resources.

 

A critical analysis of these problems will be done with a view to determining their causes and consequences on the corporation.  The researcher will also make contribution on ways of redressing the problems.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The decision to research on this field of human development results from my interest in the areas of manpower planning and development as it occupies a strategic position in the effective and efficient realization of organization’s goal.

Apart from giving the reader a general idea of what manpower training and development entails, this study is designed to examine and clarify the following issues:-

1)          To identify the manpower training and development programme of the Nigeria railway corporation.

2)          To determine the impact of this programme on workers performance.

3)          To identify the problem which negatively affect the successful implementation of the programme and achievement of the desires result?

4)          Make recommendation on ways of ensuring greater successes in future.

 

1.4     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STYDY

We have noted earlier in this research the important role of manpower training and development in achieving organizational goal.  We also noted the problem of lack of well-developed, specialized and dynamic management that will be capable of harnessing the development.

The significance of the study therefore in it’s potentiality in serving as a reference took for both individual organization and government policy makers who desire to eliminate all and avert obstacles associated with manpower planning.

It will also be of immense benefit particularly in the organizers and executors of manpower development and training programmes in the Nigeria railway corporation.  This is because the clearly identified problem areas in the design and implementation of manpower development programmes.  This research will also discuss various manpower development and training related issues and suggests ways that can be adopted to solve manpower training and development problems.

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF INCENTIVE / WELFARE SCHEMES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS (A CASE STUDY OF NEPA ENUUG)

THE IMPACT OF INCENTIVE / WELFARE SCHEMES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS

 

(A CASE STUDY OF NEPA ENUUG)

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3        PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1.4         SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.5        SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

1.6        DEFINITION OF TERMS

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1        LITERATURE REVIEW

2.2        NATURE OF SCOPE OF STAFF WELFARE

2.3        GROWTH OF STAFF WELFARE

2.4        PURPOSE OF STAFF WELFARE

2.5        CATEGORIES OF STAFF WELFARE SERVICE / TYPE OF FRINGE BENEFITS

2.6        DISADVANTAGES OF STAFF WELFARE PROVISION

2.7        INCENTIVES / WELFARE SCHEMES OF NEPA

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1        DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

3.2        DISCUSSION OF RESULTS / FINDINGS

3.3         CONCLUSIONS

3.4        RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The administration of staff incentive scheme has now become a popular phenomenon of the total personnel policy of nay organization. The scheme involves those extra benefits which may not necessarily be money, which emanate from the kind relationship of the employer to the employees, to supplement their usual wages, from the to time which are at most times geared purposely towards the enhancement of worker performance in the organization.

This scheme, where in existence is very important to both the organization and the employees. From the employer’s point of view, it is anticipated that a good staff employees incentive schemes will induce the employees to work hard and improve their general attitude towards the organization. But for the employee, these benefit represent some additional right such as extra income, additional security or more desirable working conditions that should not required any additional effort.

In business organization, employers of labour have seen in staff welfare services, as the ability to evoke commitment and co-operation of the subordinates to contribute more to the achievement of the organization goals and aspirations. This discovery has led many employers of labour to the introduction of well packaged welfare services, with the sincere belief that a good staff services, scheme will induce staff to work hard and improve the general staff moral.

The situation remains relatively the same but for the difference in methods of payment and apparent change in emphasis. The appraised of the staff welfare scheme are defined as “something of value, a part from the agreed regular monetary payment of salaries and wages given to staff”. This will be used as the working definition for this research work.

Staff welfare services exist, in all cultures and in all organization and had existed at all times. They like different shapes and forms and attract different names.

In recognition of their worker need fulfillment functions, they are variously called “welfare services” welfare benefit employees “income” or simply “supplementary compensation” pay and non wage remuneration”. As non-taxable income and expense, they are beginning to be called “indirect compensation and on tax benefit”.

In the past, they used to be tiny bits and pieces of goodies that occasionally fell from the light tables of paternalistic employers ie when the top management, play a fatherly role of the staff.

Its should be noted that for the company to achieve its objectives her welfare services should be adequate competitive who tailored towards the real need of the staff are directly influenced by nature quality and quantity of welfare services offered because they compare themselves with their counterparts in the organization.

In my research work and analysis I have found that workers do prefer increases in welfare services to increase in salaries especially during the period of inflation and rising prices. Workers normally get frustrated and dissatisfied when welfare services are inadequate. But if the opposite condition prevails, workers have been observed to be satisfied and more committed to give off their best to the achievement of the company’s objectives.

 

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Often workers or employees are attracted to certain organizations not only because of the pay packets that are stated in the advert but also because of the benefits attached to them: These benefits usually include housing, transports and medical allowances to mention but a few.

These attractions may constitute a considerable objective is which such individuals made up their mind to serve in such organization. The absence or reduction in these primary attractions of such individuals into the organization will certainly lower the morale as well as efficiency of such individual’s performance, which will in turn reflect on the organization’s productivity.

Examples a bound where organizations in recent times, have been faced with instant agitation from the workers union and staff association, poor administration of the existing ones or total withdrawal of these benefits. These dissatisfaction expressed by the staff either on the provision or administration to staff welfare service. Activities become same serious problems, which demand my proper investigation and examination in order to find lasting solution to them. These assetions will be examined with respect to a govenrmetn owned enterprise called “THE NATIONAL ELECTRIC POWER AUTHORITY PLC, ENUGU ZONE.

 

1.3      OBJECTIVE / PURPOSE OF THE STUDY    

The objective or purpose of this study is as follows:

a)           To ascertain whether any of the services formally by the staff in the company has been withdrawn and the reasons that necessitated they’re withdrawal.

b)          To ascertain whether there is other benefit which the staff demanded for effective performance of their jobs that are not yet provided.

c)           To ascertain the problems of any that is encounter by the company in the administration of welfare services.

d)          To determine the effectiveness or otherwise of staff welfare program in national electric power authority as perceived by the staff.

e)           To make recommendation based on this study on how to improve the provision and administration staff welfare scheme in NEPA Plc Enugu zone if need be.

 

1.4      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In the nature of the research, students are often faced with many constraints. To evade some of these constraints, students are now required to carryout a case study where a small area will be selected for study sued as a reference point for large areas. So the scope of this study covers only a large spectrum of government owned enterprise in Nigeria called NEPA Plc Enugu zone.

It is hoped that the study of the administration of staff welfare scheme in NEPA will serve as an eye opener to efficient administration of welfare services in other government owned companies in Nigeria.

 

1.5      SIGNIFICANCES OF THE STUDY 

The role that a comprehensive staff welfare scheme plays in the efficiency with which an average worker discharges his responsibilities and the achievement of the overall corporate of an organization cannot be under played. Organization thus, try as much as possible to attain their corporate objectives by helping their staff to accomplish their own personal objectives. This they do by setting up ideal welfare scheme for the benefit of their staff.

In another breadth, it is a matter of curiosity to observe who might be pondering on the new welfare scheme that I would be evolved by NEPA Plc Enugu zone, considering the circumstances in which the company as a new cooperate body is formed, leaving behind tow clearly distinct staff welfare scheme.

 

 

1.6      DEFINITION OF TERMS

For the purpose of this research work the following key works are defined as follows:

 

STAFF

Any person who enters into a company, through an (employers) in return for wages salary or other valuable consideration. In this research work, this embraces both those ordinarily involved with the execution of the assigned work and those involved in the day decision making of the firm.

 

WELFARE

Is a wide variety of services that is provided by companies for their staff, and in some cases for members of staff families. This word shall be used in this research interchangeable with fringes benefits, employee benefits, welfare services, supplementary benefits and supplementary compensation.

 

SCHEME

This refers to a predetermined agreement of programmes events or development planned to accrue to a  given expected outcome.

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Bank: UBA.

 

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As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

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Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF INCENTIVE SCHEMES ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION

THE IMPACT OF INCENTIVE SCHEMES ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION

      

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

        The administration of staff incentives scheme have now become a popular phenomenon of the total personnel policy of any organization. The scheme involves these extra benefits which may not necessarily be money, which emanate from the kind relationship of the employer to the employees, to supplement their usual wages, from time and which are at most times geared purposely towards the enhancement of workers performance in the organization.

 

Incentive management for employee performance is very important to both the organization and the employees. From the employer’s point of view it is anticipated that a good employee incentive management will induce the employees to work hard and improve their general attitude toward the organization.  But for the employee, these benefits represent some additional rights such as extra income, additional security or more desirable working conditions that should not require an additional effort.

 

In business organizations, employers of labor have seen in employee incentive services the ability to invoke commitment and co-operation of the subordinates to contribute more to the achievement of the organizational goals and aspirations. This discovery has led many employers of labor to the introduction of well packaged incentive management programs with the sincere belief that a good employee services will induce the employees to work hard and improve the general organizational morale.

The situation remains relatively the same but for the difference in methods of payment and apparent change in emphasis.The appraisal of the employee incentive management scheme are defined as “something of value apart from the agreed regular monetary payment of salaries and wages given to employees”. This will be used as the working definition for this research work.

 

Incentive management services exist in all culture and in all organization and had existed at all times. They take different shapes and forms and attract different names.  In recognition of their worker need fulfillment functions, they are variously called “incentive services” “employee incentive benefits” or simply “supplementary, compensation or “pay and non wage remuneration. As non taxable income and expenses, they are beginning to be called “indirect compensation and non tax benefit”.

 

In the past they used to be tiny bits and pieces of goodies that occasionally fall from the high tables of paternalistic employer i.e when the top management play a fatherly role to the employee.

 

It should be noted that for the company to achieve its objective her incentive management service should be adequate, competitive and tailored towards the real need of the employee. Employees are directly influenced by nature, quality and quality of incentive services offered because they compare themselves with their counterparts in other organizations.

 

In this research work, workers do prefer increase in incentive services to increases in salaries especially during the period of inflation and rising prices, workers normally get frustrated and dissatisfied when incentive services are inadequate. But if the opposite condition prevails workers have been observed to be satisfied and more committed to give off their best to the achievement of the company’s objectives.

 

Incentive management is incentives given in cash or kind aimed at getting the best out of an employee or group of employees. Motivation aims at optimum performance of employees. Many factors have to do with characteristics of the individuals. Different people are endorsed with different potential, training, skills and receptions ability to change. Employee attitude and behavior are also influenced by their remuneration and other incentive such as prestige, special allowance and retirement benefits. Conditions and environment of work also affect productivity.

 

Incentive management can also be a compensation package, reward for performance. Employees prefer cash items such as salary, allowances, Christian bonus, or in non cash items which we call fringe benefits such as giving the product of the organization to the workers, protective clothing, cars with or without driver.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Often workers or employees are attracted to certain organizations not only because of the pay packages that are stated in the advert but also because of the benefits attached to them.  Those benefits usually include, housing, transport and medical allowances together with pension or retirement benefits to mention but a few.

 

These attractions may constitute a considerable objective for which such individuals made-up their mind to serve in each organization. The Spence or reduction in these primary attractions of such individuals into the organization will certainly lower the morale as well as the efficiency of such individual’s performance which will in turn reflect on the organization’s productivity.

 

The dissatisfaction expressed by the employee either on the provision or administration to employee incentive service activities become some serious problem which demand for proper investigation and examination in order to find lasting solutions to them, are as follows:

(i)          The implementation of employee incentive management in the company is not too effective.

(ii)        Employee incentives are not taken care of, their salary structure or payment is poor.

(iii)      The management function is not effective as workers or employees show a negative attitude towards their job, that is inadequate responsibility, high rate of absenteeism and indiscipline.

(iv)       Also, the flow of communication between the workers and management is inadequate.

(v)         There are weak measures used in making sure these problems are tackled to enhance productivity.

 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

        The objectives of this study are as follow:

(a)         To determine if incentive management exists in organizations.

(b)        To ascertain whether any of the service rendered by the employees in the company has been withdrawn due to withdrawal of some incentives.

(c)         To identify if  incentive packages are promptly given by organizations

(d)        To ascertain whether there are other benefits which the employees demanded for effective performance of their job that are not yet provided.

(e)         To ascertain the problems if any that is encounter by the company in the administration of employee services.

(f)          To determine the effectiveness of employee incentive management in organizations as perceived by the employees.

(g)         To make recommendations based on this study on how to improve the provision and administration of employee incentives in organizations

 

1.4   SCOPE OF THE STUDY 

The scope of this study covers a large spectrum of enterprises. It is hoped that the study of the management of incentives in organizations will serve as an eye opener to efficient management of employee services in other companies in Nigeria.

 

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:

H1: Incentives management will improve employee performance in organizations.

H2: Incentives management will not improve employee performance in organizations.

H3: There is a strong relationship between incentives management and employee performance in organizations

H4: There is a weak relationship between incentives management and employee performance in organizations.

 

1.6      RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

  1. Will proper incentives management increase organizational productivity.
  2. Will increase in incentives bring about a significant increase in employee performance
  3. Do organizations in Nigeria practice incentive management programs
  4. Are incentive management practices in Nigeria effective.
  5. Does incentives management practice have a significant impact on the Nigeria economy
  6. Will a reduction in incentive packages have a negative impact on employee morale and productivity

 

1.7   LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

A study of this nature cannot be completed without encountering some constraints or limitations. In the course of this research these constraints range from time. Duration posed a limitation, finance, cost to get these materials.  Another notable limitation as experienced by the researcher was the uncooperative and uncompromising respondents. Companies are reluctant release very useful, comprehensive, accurate and relevant data.

 

Members of top management were usually not on seat or will only spare few minutes for an interview that requires more time. People air their views on the platform of biasis and prejudice, and this creates a blockage to well screened observations and conclusions

 

1.8.  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

In view of this research work, the beneficiaries are as follows: managements, employees and organizations.

 

MANAGEMENT: The management tends to benefit when these incentives such as special allowance and retirement benefits, prestige, condition and environment of work are provided. Workers are committed to give off their best to the achievement of the company’s objective.

 

EMPLOYEE: – The employee will also benefit when incentive services are introduced in the organization due to the employers sincere belief that a good employee incentive service activity will induce them to work hard and improve general employee morale.

 

Other organizations thus try as much as possible to attain their corporate objectives by helping their staffs to accomplish their own personal objectives. This they do by setting up ideal incentive management for the benefit of  their employees.

 

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

For the purpose of this research work the following key words are defined as follows:

EMPLOYEE: Any person who works for an employer in return for wages, salary or other valuable considerations.

ORGANIZATION: It is an act of coordinating a body of people. It is also the structure of relations that exist between positives in a group.

EMPLOYEE MORALE:     This means the condition of workers regarding discipline and confidence.

INCENTIVE: These are extra benefits attached to wages and salaries, or given as separate  packages.

WORK: A task which an employee is assigned to perform.

PERFORMANCE: This refers to the execution of duty by a worker.

MANAGEMENT: Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal

RESOURCING: Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.

EMPLOYEE WELFARE: Welfare is the provision of a minimal level of well-being and social support for all employees.

RECRUITMENT: Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, selecting, and onboarding a qualified person for a job. At the strategic level it may involve the development of an employer brand which includes an ‘employee offering.

RETIREMENT: Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely

ABSENTEEISM: Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. Traditionally, absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer

PRODUCTIVITY: Productivity is the ratio of output to inputs in production; it is a measure of the efficiency of production.

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF INCENTIVE (WELFARE SCHEME) ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS: A CASE STUDY OF NEPA PLC ENUGU, ENUGU STATE

THE IMPACT OF INCENTIVE (WELFARE SCHEME) ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS: A CASE STUDY OF NEPA PLC ENUGU, ENUGU STATE

 

ABSTRACT

          Since the day of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Douglass Mcgregor’s hygiene factors, a lot of management intellectual have been carrying out research, and writing on good management of staff welfare schemes and ways of motivating workers and increasing productivity. but the good ideas suggested by these searchers (authors) have not been fully realized by the employee of out time in general and the good workers of NEPA Plc, Enugu Zone in particular.

Although the colonial history of Nigeria there has been employer/employee unrest at different time due to financial s malfeasance, administrative malversation, neglect of and imposition of inhuman workers welfare scheme and consequent negative results on labour productivity.  The killing of many coal miners in Enugu in 1949  by the an autocratic white regime is a case to mention here, since then, many organized labour unions have sprung-up in many organizations and governments at different times at different parts of this country of fight for the right of workers, workers motivational incentives, and society. Responsibilities of employers of labour to the employees in particular, and society at large.

It is against this background that this research work was conducted to investigate the problems militating against the full realization of the benefits of a good workers welfare scheme by the employees of NEPA Plc, Enugu Zone in particular. The method of data collection employed in this study was primary and secondary sources. Simple percentage was used in the analysis of data to generated in the course of this research.

It is expected that this work would assist the corporate/business level strategic planners and mangers of NEPA Plc, Enugu zone in particular and those of other companies, industries, corporations and government in productivity as they are in constant search for practical approaches to the solution of the problems hindering improvement of NEPA performance (in supply of power) in the Enugu zone, and workers productivity in the economy.

It is also hope that all the other employer of labour whose business are so small to be classified under the entrepreneurial code such as all small/medium scale enterprises vis-visa, those other bigger business discussed above which classed under the adaptative and planning code shall as well benefit motivate workers, provide workers participation in decision making process, and lead to eventual increase in labour productivity.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                        ii

Approval Page                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                    v       

Abstract                                                                                           vii

Table of Contents                                                                                     ix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0           Introduction                                                                                    1

1.1           Background of the Study                                                               1

1.2           Statement of the Problem                                                               4

1.3           Purpose of the Study                                                            6

1.4           Scope of the Study                                                                         7

1.5           Limitation of the Study                                                                  7

1.6           Significance of the Study                                                               8

1.7           Definition of Terms                                                              9

References                                                                                       10

CHAPTER TWO      

2.1           Literature Review                                                                           11

2.2           Nature of Scope of Staff Welfare                                        13

2.3           Growth of Staff Welfare                                                                13

2.4           Purpose of Staff Welfare Scheme                                        20

2.5           Categories of Staff Welfare Services/Types of Fringe Benefits 22

2.6           Disadvantages of Staff Welfare Provision                                   38

2.7           Summary of Literature Review                                                     43

References                                                                              46

CHAPTER THREE                              

3.1           Research Design and Methodology                                              48

3.2           Area of the Study                                                                            48

3.3           Population of the Study                                                                 49

3.4           Sample and Sampling Procedure/Technique                               49

3.5           Instrument for Data Collection                                                      50

3.6           Validation of the Instrument                                                         52

3.7           Reliability of the Instrument                                                         52

References                                                                              55

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0           Data Presentation and Analysis                                                     56

4.1           Introduction                                                                                    56

4.2           Testing of Hypothesis                                                           73

4.3           Summary of Result                                                               78

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussions, Recommendation And Conclusions                                 80

5.1           Discussion of Result/Findings                                                      80

5.2           Conclusion                                                                                      82

5.3           Implication(s) of the Research Findings                                       84

5.4           Recommendations                                                                          85

5.5           Suggestions for Further Research                                        87

Bibliography                                                                         94

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          The administration of staff incentives scheme has now become a popular phenomenon of the total personnel policy of any organization. The scheme involves these extra benefits which may not necessarily be money, which emanate from the kind relationship of the employer to the employees, to supplement their usual wages, from time and which are at most times geared purposely towards the enhancement of workers performance in the organization.

This scheme, is very important to both the organization and the employees, from the employer’s point of view, it is anticipated that a good staff employee incentive scheme will induce the employees to work hard and improve their general attitude toward the organization.  But for the employee, these benefit represent some additional right such as extra income, additional security or more desirable working conditions that should not require any additional effort.

In business organizations, employers of labour have seen in staff welfare services the ability to invoke commitment and co-operation of the subordinates to contribute more to the achievement of the organizational goals and aspiration. This discovery has led many employers of labour to the introduction of well packaged welfare services, with the sincere belief that a good staff services will induce staff to work hard and improve the general staff morale.

The situation remains relatively the same but for the difference in methods of payment and apparent change in emphasis. The appraisal of the staff welfare scheme are defined as “something of value apart from the agreed regular monetary payment of salaries and wages given to staff”. This will be used as the working definition for this research work.

Staff welfare services exist in all culture and in all organization and had existed at all times. They take different shapes and forms and attracts different names.  In recognition of their worker need fulfillment functions, they are variously called “welfare services” “welfare benefits employees” “income” or simply “supplementary, compensation or “pay and non wage remuneration. As non taxable income and expenses, they are beginning to be called “indirect compensation and non tax benefit”.

In the past, they used to be tiny bits and pieces of goodies that occasionally full from the high tables of paternalistic employer i.e when the top management play a fatherly role of the staff.

It should be noted that for the company to achieve its objective her welfare service should be adequate, competitive and tailored towards the real need of the staff.  Staff are directly influenced by nature, quality and quality of welfare services offered because they compare themselves with their counterparts in other organizations.

In this research work, workers do prefer increase in welfare services to increases in salaries especially during the period of inflation and rising prices, workers normally get frustrated and dissatisfied when welfare services are inadequate. But if the opposite condition prevails workers have been observed to be satisfied and more committed to give off their best to the achievement of the company’s objectives.

Welfare scheme, is a kind of incentives given in cash or kind aimed at getting the best out of an employee or group of employees. Motivation aims at optimum performance of employees. Many factors have to do with characteristics of the individuals, different people are endorsed with different potentials, training, skills and receptions ability to change. Employees attitude and behaviour are also influenced by their remuneration and other incentive such as prestige, special allowance and retirement benefits. Conditions and environment of work also affect productivity.

Incentive (welfare scheme) can also be a compensation package, reward for performance, staff prefer cash items such as salary, allowances, Christians bonus, or in non cash items such which we call fringe benefits such as giving the product of the organization to the workers, protective clothing, cars with or without driver.

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

          Often workers or employees are attracted to certain organization not only because of the pay packets that are stated in the advert but also because of the benefits attached to them.  Those benefits usually include, housing, transport and medical allowances together with pension or retirement benefits to mention but a few.

These attractions may constitute a considerable objective for which such individuals made-up their mind to serve in each organization. The Spence or reduction in these primary attractions of such individuals into the organization will certainly lower the morale as well as the efficiency of such individuals performance, which will in turn reflect on the organizations productivity.

 

CORRECTION FROM STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

These dissatisfaction expressed by the staff either on the provision or administration to staff welfare service activities become some serious problem which demand for proper investigation and examination in order to find lasting solution to them, are as follows:

(i)              The implementation of staff welfare scheme in the company is not too effective.

(ii)           Workers welfare is not taken care of their salary structure or payment is nothing to write home about.

(iii)        The management function is not effective as workers or employees show a negative attitude towards their job, that is inadequate responsibility, high rate of absenteeism and indiscipline.

(iv)         Also, the flow of communication between the workers and management is inadequate.

(v)            Measure to be used in making sue this problems are tackled to enhance productivity.

 

1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

          The objective of this study are as follow:

(a)             To determine if any incentive welfare scheme exist in NEPA.

(b)            To ascertain whether any of the service rendered by the staff in the company has been withdrawn due to withdrawal of some incentives.

(c)             To identify if welfare scheme package is given by NEPA.

(d)            To ascertain whether there are other benefits which the staff demanded for effective performance of their job that are not yet provided.

(e)             To ascertain the problems if any that is encounter by the company in the administration of welfare services.

(f)              To determine the effectiveness of staff welfare programme in National Electric Power Authority as perceived by the staff.

(g)            To make recommendation based on this study on how to improve the provision and administration of staff welfare scheme in NEPA Plc Enugu Zone if need be.

 

1.4    SCOPE OF THE STUDY 

The scope of this study covers only a large spectrum of government owned enterprises in Nigeria called NEPA Plc Enugu Zone.

It is hoped that the study of the administration of staff welfare scheme in NEPA will serve as an eye opener to efficient administration of welfare services in other government owned companies in Nigeria.

 

1.5    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

          A study of this nature cannot be completed without encountering some constraints or limitations, in the course of this research, these constraints range from time, duration posed a limitation, finance, cost to get these materials.  Another notable limitation as experienced by the researcher was the unco-operative and uncompromising respondents.

 

1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

          In view of this research work, the beneficiaries are  as follows, management, staff and other organization.

MANAGEMENT: The management tends to benefit when this incentives such as special allowance and retirement benefits, prestige, condition and environment of work are provided. Workers are committed to give off their best to the achievement of the company’s objective.

STAFF: – The staff will also benefit when welfare services are introduced in the organization due to the employers sincere belief that a good staff/employee service activity will induce them to work hard and improve general staff morale.

Other organization thus, try as much as possible to attain their corporate objectives by helping their staffs to accomplish their own personal objectives. This they do by setting ups ideal welfare scheme for the benefit of their staff.

1.7    DEFINITION OF TERMS

          For the purpose of this research work the following key words are defined as follows:

STAFF:     Any person who enters into a (employer in return for wages, salary or other valuable consideration.

ORGANIZATION:     It is an act of organizing a body of people, company, school. It is also the structure of relations that exist between positives in a group.

MORAL:   This means the moral condition of workers regarding discipline and confidence.

INCENTIVES: These are wages and salaries.

EMPLOYEE: Those employed to work in an organization.

WORK: A task which employee is assigned to perform.

PERFORMANCE: This refers to the execution of carrying out notable worker.

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After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to 08139462710 or 08137701720

 

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Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

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212 days ago 0 Comments Short URL