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AN IMPACT OF ACCESSIBILITY ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY VALUE

Abstract

This work is on an impact of accessibility on commercial property value. A number of factors determine commercial property values with road network being one of them . This study was carried out to determine the contributions of arterial road network to variability in commercial property values in lkeja, Nigeria, in the presence or absence of other value determinants. In attaining the aim , road network was decomposed into its explanatory variables and regression models set at 0.05 alpha level used to determine their individual and joint impacts with other factors on commercial property values. It was found that accessibility has a P-value of 0.0024; demand, P-value = 0.0011; and supply returned P-value of 0.0059; all have significant impact on commercial property values. Also, the Analysis of Variance indicates that F-ratio = 3.88, P-value = 0.0193, with R2 of 69.37% explaining 69% variability in commercial property value. However, further analysis using Backward Selection Method of Stepwise Regression Model indicated that location in addition to demand, supply, and accessibility have significant impacts on commercial property values in the study area. It recommended that road network be improved to enhance values of commercial properties in the study area to the benefit of Government through enhanced property tax; to property owners through improved rental values; and occupiers of commercial properties through better neighbourhood quality.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#25000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

AN IMPACT OF ACCESSIBILITY ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY VALUE

Abstract

This work is on an impact of accessibility on commercial property value. A number of factors determine commercial property values with road network being one of them . This study was carried out to determine the contributions of arterial road network to variability in commercial property values in lkeja, Nigeria, in the presence or absence of other value determinants. In attaining the aim , road network was decomposed into its explanatory variables and regression models set at 0.05 alpha level used to determine their individual and joint impacts with other factors on commercial property values. It was found that accessibility has a P-value of 0.0024; demand, P-value = 0.0011; and supply returned P-value of 0.0059; all have significant impact on commercial property values. Also, the Analysis of Variance indicates that F-ratio = 3.88, P-value = 0.0193, with R2 of 69.37% explaining 69% variability in commercial property value. However, further analysis using Backward Selection Method of Stepwise Regression Model indicated that location in addition to demand, supply, and accessibility have significant impacts on commercial property values in the study area. It recommended that road network be improved to enhance values of commercial properties in the study area to the benefit of Government through enhanced property tax; to property owners through improved rental values; and occupiers of commercial properties through better neighbourhood quality.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#20000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

AN IMPACT OF ACCESSIBILITY ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY VALUE

Abstract

This work is on an impact of accessibility on commercial property value. A number of factors determine commercial property values with road network being one of them . This study was carried out to determine the contributions of arterial road network to variability in commercial property values in lkeja, Nigeria, in the presence or absence of other value determinants. In attaining the aim , road network was decomposed into its explanatory variables and regression models set at 0.05 alpha level used to determine their individual and joint impacts with other factors on commercial property values. It was found that accessibility has a P-value of 0.0024; demand, P-value = 0.0011; and supply returned P-value of 0.0059; all have significant impact on commercial property values. Also, the Analysis of Variance indicates that F-ratio = 3.88, P-value = 0.0193, with R2 of 69.37% explaining 69% variability in commercial property value. However, further analysis using Backward Selection Method of Stepwise Regression Model indicated that location in addition to demand, supply, and accessibility have significant impacts on commercial property values in the study area. It recommended that road network be improved to enhance values of commercial properties in the study area to the benefit of Government through enhanced property tax; to property owners through improved rental values; and occupiers of commercial properties through better neighbourhood quality.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#25000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of my project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research has investigated in to a comparative analysis of rental variation in residential and commercial properties in Ogui New Layout, Enugu Nigeria.

 

The researcher used both questionnaires, interview and self observation as method of data collection. The data was collected among some landlords, Estate agents of the selected properties.

 

The data collected was analyzed based on interpretation and conclusion made.

 

Chapter one treats the introduction of the project work, chapter two Literature Review, chapter three. Research methodology, chapter four data presentation, analysis and interpretation and chapter five finding, recommendation and conclusion.

 

Finally, rental variation in commercial and residential properties have been discovered to be influenced by certain factors affecting the rents passing on these properties.

 

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0              Introduction

 

1.1       Background of the Study

 

1.2              Statement of Problem

 

1.3              Purpose of the Study

 

1.4              Significance of Study

 

1.5              Scope of the Study

 

1.6              Limitation of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0              Literature Review

 

2.1       Property

 

21.1           What is Property?

 

21.2           Meaning of Property for Appraisal

 

21.3           Nature of Property

 

21.4           Classification Property for Valuation Purpose

 

21.5           Economic of Rent

 

21.6           Theory of Rent

 

21.7          Concepts of Rent

 

21.8          Determinate of Rent

 

2.2              Commercial Properties and Rents

 

2.3              Residential Properties

 

2.4              Definition of Relevant Terms

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0              Research Methodology

 

3.1       Sources of Data

 

3.2              Primary Data

 

3.3              Secondary Data

 

3.4              Study Population and Sample

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0              Data Presentation, Analysis and Introduction

 

4.1       Presentation of Basic Data

 

4.2              Presentation and Analysis of Data

 

4.3              The Average Rent in N/M2 on Commercial and Residential Properties

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

5.0              Findings, Recommendation and Conclusions

 

5.1       Finding

 

5.2              Recommendation

 

5.3              Conclusion

 

Bibliography

 

Appendix

 

List of Figures/Tables

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0              INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

Shelter is a basic necessity in life. An individual can satisfy this need by either occupying his own (owner’s occupier) property or renting another persons property. In our traditional society, the need for shelter is mainly met through the first alternative, that is owner occupation. With the emergency of urban centres, the situation has changed. Many people are no longer about to own property because of the difficulty in the acquisition of land and the high cost of building construction. Therefore, they are left with the alternative of renting other people’s properties in order to satisfy their need for shelter. Consequently two classes of urban resident have emerged, the landlord and the tenant under this arrangement the tenant pays to the landlord a certain amount of money in consideration for his use of the landlord’s house. This amount is popularly known as rent.

 

During the civil war the Nigeria that is 1966 to 1970 many landed properties in the urban areas of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria, including Enugu, were destroyed. Consequently, there was a sharp decline in the supply of landed properties after the war. Furthermore, the post – civil war period witnessed an unprecedented number of the rural population trooping into the urban centres due to the conspicuous prosperity brought about in the urban area by the oil boom. This resulted to high demand for the existing limited supply of landed properties. Consequent upon these, rent for landed properties increased considerably.

 

This trend has continued with the effect that “the average worker is paying between 30% to 40% of his salary as rent ” (Oshadiya, 1985). Thus the increase in rents on the properties has led to the variation of rent on properties.

 

In urban area due to location advantage (for example prime location) which some properties offer above others for commercial and residential uses, rent tend to very on account of the type of use which a property can offer.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

Location of economic properties has been a difficult concept to understand. Although the primary objective of commercial properties is the derivation of financial gains, while that of residential properties is for habitation, shelter and comfort, the demand for land is a refection of the profitability or utility derivable from it use. The greater the benefit to be obtained from a particular use, the higher the rent that the user will be willing to pay for it.

 

There appear to be wide ranging differences in the levels of rent passing on residential and commercial properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.

 

This research is seeking among other things to find out the causes of rental variation in commercial and residential properties in Nigeria, Ogui New Layout as a case study.

 

1.3       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

The main purpose of this research is to examine the reasons for rental variation in commercial and residential properties with a view to provide tool to be used in catching issues related to rent on these properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.

 

In order to achieve the standard goals, the following objective are to be undertaken;

 

i)                    To identify the current level of rents for commercial and residential properties in the study area.

 

ii)                  To ascertain and examine the factors influencing the rents being commanded by these properties.

 

iii)                To specify the implications of rental variation on decisions to acquire those properties.

 

iv)                To determine the trend in rental values for residential and commercial properties in the study area.

 

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

The finding of this study will be of benefit to the following;

 

Firstly, tenants who are charged rents based on different reasons, especially when the properties are of the same nature (physically). This will again enable the investors not only to understand how occupier thinks, but also why and the things they consider before acquiring properties for certain uses. For example residential and commercial use.

 

Secondly, the generality of the public can now understand the reason why the rents being commanded by these properties have to differ.

 

Lastly, this research work will help to determine the factors influencing, commercial and residential properties which is an essential pre-requisite to successful development as well as stimulating interest in the students to carryout out further research on the topic.

 

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

The study covers a period of three years (2002 to 2004) and it is restricted to selected properties (Residential and commercial) comprising blocks of flat and tenements in Ogui New Layout, Enugu

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#10000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENTAL VARIATION IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research has investigated in to a comparative analysis of rental variation in residential and commercial properties in Ogui New Layout, Enugu Nigeria.

 

The researcher used both questionnaires, interview and self observation as method of data collection. The data was collected among some landlords, Estate agents of the selected properties.

 

The data collected was analyzed based on interpretation and conclusion made.

 

Chapter one treats the introduction of the project work, chapter two Literature Review, chapter three. Research methodology, chapter four data presentation, analysis and interpretation and chapter five finding, recommendation and conclusion.

 

Finally, rental variation in commercial and residential properties have been discovered to be influenced by certain factors affecting the rents passing on these properties.

 

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0              Introduction

 

1.1       Background of the Study

 

1.2              Statement of Problem

 

1.3              Purpose of the Study

 

1.4              Significance of Study

 

1.5              Scope of the Study

 

1.6              Limitation of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0              Literature Review

 

2.1       Property

 

21.1           What is Property?

 

21.2           Meaning of Property for Appraisal

 

21.3           Nature of Property

 

21.4           Classification Property for Valuation Purpose

 

21.5           Economic of Rent

 

21.6           Theory of Rent

 

21.7          Concepts of Rent

 

21.8          Determinate of Rent

 

2.2              Commercial Properties and Rents

 

2.3              Residential Properties

 

2.4              Definition of Relevant Terms

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

3.0              Research Methodology

 

3.1       Sources of Data

 

3.2              Primary Data

 

3.3              Secondary Data

 

3.4              Study Population and Sample

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0              Data Presentation, Analysis and Introduction

 

4.1       Presentation of Basic Data

 

4.2              Presentation and Analysis of Data

 

4.3              The Average Rent in N/M2 on Commercial and Residential Properties

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

5.0              Findings, Recommendation and Conclusions

 

5.1       Finding

 

5.2              Recommendation

 

5.3              Conclusion

 

Bibliography

 

Appendix

 

List of Figures/Tables

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0              INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

Shelter is a basic necessity in life. An individual can satisfy this need by either occupying his own (owner’s occupier) property or renting another persons property. In our traditional society, the need for shelter is mainly met through the first alternative, that is owner occupation. With the emergency of urban centres, the situation has changed. Many people are no longer about to own property because of the difficulty in the acquisition of land and the high cost of building construction. Therefore, they are left with the alternative of renting other people’s properties in order to satisfy their need for shelter. Consequently two classes of urban resident have emerged, the landlord and the tenant under this arrangement the tenant pays to the landlord a certain amount of money in consideration for his use of the landlord’s house. This amount is popularly known as rent.

 

During the civil war the Nigeria that is 1966 to 1970 many landed properties in the urban areas of the former Eastern Region of Nigeria, including Enugu, were destroyed. Consequently, there was a sharp decline in the supply of landed properties after the war. Furthermore, the post – civil war period witnessed an unprecedented number of the rural population trooping into the urban centres due to the conspicuous prosperity brought about in the urban area by the oil boom. This resulted to high demand for the existing limited supply of landed properties. Consequent upon these, rent for landed properties increased considerably.

 

This trend has continued with the effect that “the average worker is paying between 30% to 40% of his salary as rent ” (Oshadiya, 1985). Thus the increase in rents on the properties has led to the variation of rent on properties.

 

In urban area due to location advantage (for example prime location) which some properties offer above others for commercial and residential uses, rent tend to very on account of the type of use which a property can offer.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

Location of economic properties has been a difficult concept to understand. Although the primary objective of commercial properties is the derivation of financial gains, while that of residential properties is for habitation, shelter and comfort, the demand for land is a refection of the profitability or utility derivable from it use. The greater the benefit to be obtained from a particular use, the higher the rent that the user will be willing to pay for it.

 

There appear to be wide ranging differences in the levels of rent passing on residential and commercial properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.

 

This research is seeking among other things to find out the causes of rental variation in commercial and residential properties in Nigeria, Ogui New Layout as a case study.

 

1.3       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

The main purpose of this research is to examine the reasons for rental variation in commercial and residential properties with a view to provide tool to be used in catching issues related to rent on these properties in Enugu and Nigeria generally.

 

In order to achieve the standard goals, the following objective are to be undertaken;

 

i)                    To identify the current level of rents for commercial and residential properties in the study area.

 

ii)                  To ascertain and examine the factors influencing the rents being commanded by these properties.

 

iii)                To specify the implications of rental variation on decisions to acquire those properties.

 

iv)                To determine the trend in rental values for residential and commercial properties in the study area.

 

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

The finding of this study will be of benefit to the following;

 

Firstly, tenants who are charged rents based on different reasons, especially when the properties are of the same nature (physically). This will again enable the investors not only to understand how occupier thinks, but also why and the things they consider before acquiring properties for certain uses. For example residential and commercial use.

 

Secondly, the generality of the public can now understand the reason why the rents being commanded by these properties have to differ.

 

Lastly, this research work will help to determine the factors influencing, commercial and residential properties which is an essential pre-requisite to successful development as well as stimulating interest in the students to carryout out further research on the topic.

 

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

The study covers a period of three years (2002 to 2004) and it is restricted to selected properties (Residential and commercial) comprising blocks of flat and tenements in Ogui New Layout, Enugu

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE EFFECT OF LAND USE ACT IN PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

1.4 Scope of the Study

1.5 Limitation of the Study

1.6 Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Highlights of Land Use Act, No. 6. of 1978

2.2 The Land Tenure law of Northern Nigerian, 1962

2.3 The Effects of Land Use Act on Naluation Practice

2.4 The Roles of Valuers as Put Forward in Land Use Act, 1978

2.5 Effects of Zoning land and Buildings

2.6 Compensation for Valuation

2.6.1    General Basis of Compensation Assessment Under the Land Use Act

2.6.2    Disturbance Compensation

2.6.3    Under Compensation

2.7 Valuation for Compensation

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Research Methodology

3.1 Source of Data

3.2 Methods of Investigation/Instruments of Data Collection

3.3 Research Approach

3.4 Basis of the Research Study

3.5 Population

3.6 Sample Strength

3.7 Development of Questionnaires

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

4.1 Distribution of Real Property Ownership in Enugu Urban

4.2 Data on Population Figure within Enugu Urban, 1998 – 2005

4.3 Presentation of Data on the Distribution of Questionnaire

4.4 Respondents Appraisal on Property Investment in Enugu Urban

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Findings

5.1 Recommendation

5.2 Conclusions

5.3 Samples of Questionnaires

References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The land use Decree No. 6 of 1978 otherwise popularly called Land Use Act was promulgated on 29th March, 1978, the effective date of the commencement of its operation in Nigeria. It is a statutory approach or device used by the federal government to consolidate and harmonize the diverse tenures prevalent in the country before the promulgation. It aims at ensuring the protection of the rights of all Nigerians to enable them to provide for the sustenance of themselves and their families.

It abolished the age long tradition of private ownership of land in the south and introduced a uniform system of land tenure through out the country.

Land tenure under this dispensation means that; one can not have an interest in land beyond the terms granted to him by the statute (usually 99 years) and such interest is renewable on expiration.

The act vests all land comprised in the territory of each state (except land vested in the Federal Government for its agencies) solely in the hands of the military governors of the state who would hold such land in true for the people.

Finally, the promulgation of this Act was as a result of two main factors;

Firstly, was the diversity of customary laws on land tenure and difficulty in applying the various customs of the different peoples.

The second factor was the rampant practice in southern Nigeria with regards to fraudulent sales of land. The same land would be sold to different persons at the same time giving rise to so many litigations.

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Land being the most universal, most valuable, probably the most controversial assets, the one and the only foundation of all human activities, requires a planned system of holding, control and regulations so as to avoid misuse and abuse of rights thereof.

In the words of Taslim O. Elias, (a renowned Jurist). “The indigenous system does not admit that land can ever be without an owner” indeed, if land (Real property), were to be a “res nullius” (something belonging to none), it will be valueless in the economic sense, there will be no question of compulsory acquisition, purchase, revocation and subsequent compensation. It way not be out of place to suggest that without valid control and regulation, ownership of land may depend purely on the physical strength of an individual or how violent the person can be. Such situation will definitely be anchoretic.

This work therefore unraveled the effects of Land Use Act, 1978 to prospective investors on real property (land), estate surveyors, private individuals etc, particularly in Enugu urban.

Since its promulgation however, the land use Act has been under intense fire as virtually almost every part of it has been criticized. The Act hardly went down well with traditional Nigeria, mainly because of the factors of interest in communal land ownership comprising several dead ancestors, relatively few living members and countless unborn generations. Many of their forefathers and mothers lost their lives in the process of acquiring the lands and were buried there. Unless their bodies and bones are exhumed, it remains a taboo to leave those lands. One therefore observes the existence of several motives and circumstances attracted to land ownership. In traditional Nigeria, many of which are non – economic and therefore cannot assuaged monetarily since the owners do not sale, alienate or part with land as freely or easily as other commodities.

Professionally speaking, land and its attributes, features and components embodies value – in – encounter.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

From the above discussions, certain questions might be identified that certainly, needs answers. They include;

1.  Is the land use decree 1978 (now Land Use Act) implemented to its fullest apart from over use of such powers by state governors?

2.  What are the problems associated with the techniques for valuing properties compulsorily acquired for compensation under the act?

3.  What is the effect of the Act on compensation?

4.  What adjustments should be done to the compensation, revocation of rights of occupancy for overriding public interests, allocation of land for Agriculture and grazing sections of this Act?

5.  What should be the appropriate technique for valuing properties compulsory acquired for compensation purposes under the Act?

6.  What should be the appropriate technique for zoning of land and building and valuing properties compulsorily acquired compensation purpose under the Act?

7.  What effect has the Act posed on the price mechanism of land and buildings?

 

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this research would be as follows:

a)  To ascertain whether the powers exercised by the state governors under Land Use Act and the general over – view of this Act pose a threat to effective land use.

b)  To identify the possible problems associated with property development as a result of the Act.

c)  Suggesting the necessary adjustments that need to be made to the revocation, compensation of rights of occupancy in sections of this Act, in order to promote property development.

d)  Suggesting an appropriate technique for valuing properties compulsorily acquired under the Act.

e)  To suggest the right professional capable in assisting the government on land transactions and other improvements on land.

f)  Suggesting towards ensuring adequate compensation for a revoked right of occupancy.

g)  Finally, proffering ways of reflecting the realities of social, traditional and economic norms posed by the Land Use Act to the modern society.

 

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This work unraveled the roles of Land Use Act in property development in Enugu Urban.

Four zones of Okpara Avenue, New Haven, Achara Layout and Ogui layout are sampled due the large ladn mass.

These four zones are where property devleopmens are more pronounced. Although lands within Enugu Urban are revoked by the public bodies for overriding public interest without putting it for what it was revoked for. The scope of the study therefore uses the four zones to represent other areas in Enugu urban where property developments take place.

Such rights of communal land owner and property owners were usurped by the government thereby reducing their rights of occupancy to 99 years lease instead of allodia or absolute ownership.

 

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research work was highly tideous, though extremely educative. The researcher therefore, encountered constraints during the course of this project especially finance, which made him redistrict the study to certain areas.

Again time factor limited this study as I shared time among the project and other academic work. More so, the commitments of the researcher to the welfare of Estate Management Association (EMA) IMT as the president slightly delayed this work.

The provisions of the Land Use Act are too extensive to be compressed into few pages. For the purpose of this study, only the arrangements of sections and the provisions pertaining to valuation and its effects are covered.

Although the scope of this work was limited by time and finance, the researcher was able to carryout the work to completion.

 

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study of the Land Use Act No. 6, 1978 with eight (8) parts and fifty one (51) sections is the most significant land policy currently in force in Nigeria. The study will be of benefit to the government o its planning control and property acquisition procedures.

Most intending property development are scared by the compensation tedinque if a property is revoked by the governor for overriding public interest, hence, this study will assist the developers for prudent appraisals.

State surveyors and values coded apply the result of this research. Work in their future valuation for compulsory acquisition and in their advisory role to the public. Students and lecturers in Estate management Professional will not find this work insignificant as it explained areas of controversy in this act.

With this input in Estate Management Professional, property developers will increase geometrically as recommendations preferred in this work will improve the compensation receivable by them in the event of revocation of their property rights by public bodies.

 

 

1.7 BASIS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY

The basis of this research is solely on land use. The speculators, private investors, the estate surveyors and valuers, farmers etc. who normally perform daily activities on land to earn their livings.

With these cadres of works of life, one can easily detect the negative and positive impacts of the Land Use Act to the entire society.

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#10000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE EFFECT OF LAND USE ACT IN PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

1.4 Scope of the Study

1.5 Limitation of the Study

1.6 Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Highlights of Land Use Act, No. 6. of 1978

2.2 The Land Tenure law of Northern Nigerian, 1962

2.3 The Effects of Land Use Act on Naluation Practice

2.4 The Roles of Valuers as Put Forward in Land Use Act, 1978

2.5 Effects of Zoning land and Buildings

2.6 Compensation for Valuation

2.6.1    General Basis of Compensation Assessment Under the Land Use Act

2.6.2    Disturbance Compensation

2.6.3    Under Compensation

2.7 Valuation for Compensation

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Research Methodology

3.1 Source of Data

3.2 Methods of Investigation/Instruments of Data Collection

3.3 Research Approach

3.4 Basis of the Research Study

3.5 Population

3.6 Sample Strength

3.7 Development of Questionnaires

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

4.1 Distribution of Real Property Ownership in Enugu Urban

4.2 Data on Population Figure within Enugu Urban, 1998 – 2005

4.3 Presentation of Data on the Distribution of Questionnaire

4.4 Respondents Appraisal on Property Investment in Enugu Urban

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Findings

5.1 Recommendation

5.2 Conclusions

5.3 Samples of Questionnaires

References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The land use Decree No. 6 of 1978 otherwise popularly called Land Use Act was promulgated on 29th March, 1978, the effective date of the commencement of its operation in Nigeria. It is a statutory approach or device used by the federal government to consolidate and harmonize the diverse tenures prevalent in the country before the promulgation. It aims at ensuring the protection of the rights of all Nigerians to enable them to provide for the sustenance of themselves and their families.

It abolished the age long tradition of private ownership of land in the south and introduced a uniform system of land tenure through out the country.

Land tenure under this dispensation means that; one can not have an interest in land beyond the terms granted to him by the statute (usually 99 years) and such interest is renewable on expiration.

The act vests all land comprised in the territory of each state (except land vested in the Federal Government for its agencies) solely in the hands of the military governors of the state who would hold such land in true for the people.

Finally, the promulgation of this Act was as a result of two main factors;

Firstly, was the diversity of customary laws on land tenure and difficulty in applying the various customs of the different peoples.

The second factor was the rampant practice in southern Nigeria with regards to fraudulent sales of land. The same land would be sold to different persons at the same time giving rise to so many litigations.

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Land being the most universal, most valuable, probably the most controversial assets, the one and the only foundation of all human activities, requires a planned system of holding, control and regulations so as to avoid misuse and abuse of rights thereof.

In the words of Taslim O. Elias, (a renowned Jurist). “The indigenous system does not admit that land can ever be without an owner” indeed, if land (Real property), were to be a “res nullius” (something belonging to none), it will be valueless in the economic sense, there will be no question of compulsory acquisition, purchase, revocation and subsequent compensation. It way not be out of place to suggest that without valid control and regulation, ownership of land may depend purely on the physical strength of an individual or how violent the person can be. Such situation will definitely be anchoretic.

This work therefore unraveled the effects of Land Use Act, 1978 to prospective investors on real property (land), estate surveyors, private individuals etc, particularly in Enugu urban.

Since its promulgation however, the land use Act has been under intense fire as virtually almost every part of it has been criticized. The Act hardly went down well with traditional Nigeria, mainly because of the factors of interest in communal land ownership comprising several dead ancestors, relatively few living members and countless unborn generations. Many of their forefathers and mothers lost their lives in the process of acquiring the lands and were buried there. Unless their bodies and bones are exhumed, it remains a taboo to leave those lands. One therefore observes the existence of several motives and circumstances attracted to land ownership. In traditional Nigeria, many of which are non – economic and therefore cannot assuaged monetarily since the owners do not sale, alienate or part with land as freely or easily as other commodities.

Professionally speaking, land and its attributes, features and components embodies value – in – encounter.

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

From the above discussions, certain questions might be identified that certainly, needs answers. They include;

1.  Is the land use decree 1978 (now Land Use Act) implemented to its fullest apart from over use of such powers by state governors?

2.  What are the problems associated with the techniques for valuing properties compulsorily acquired for compensation under the act?

3.  What is the effect of the Act on compensation?

4.  What adjustments should be done to the compensation, revocation of rights of occupancy for overriding public interests, allocation of land for Agriculture and grazing sections of this Act?

5.  What should be the appropriate technique for valuing properties compulsory acquired for compensation purposes under the Act?

6.  What should be the appropriate technique for zoning of land and building and valuing properties compulsorily acquired compensation purpose under the Act?

7.  What effect has the Act posed on the price mechanism of land and buildings?

 

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this research would be as follows:

a)  To ascertain whether the powers exercised by the state governors under Land Use Act and the general over – view of this Act pose a threat to effective land use.

b)  To identify the possible problems associated with property development as a result of the Act.

c)  Suggesting the necessary adjustments that need to be made to the revocation, compensation of rights of occupancy in sections of this Act, in order to promote property development.

d)  Suggesting an appropriate technique for valuing properties compulsorily acquired under the Act.

e)  To suggest the right professional capable in assisting the government on land transactions and other improvements on land.

f)  Suggesting towards ensuring adequate compensation for a revoked right of occupancy.

g)  Finally, proffering ways of reflecting the realities of social, traditional and economic norms posed by the Land Use Act to the modern society.

 

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This work unraveled the roles of Land Use Act in property development in Enugu Urban.

Four zones of Okpara Avenue, New Haven, Achara Layout and Ogui layout are sampled due the large ladn mass.

These four zones are where property devleopmens are more pronounced. Although lands within Enugu Urban are revoked by the public bodies for overriding public interest without putting it for what it was revoked for. The scope of the study therefore uses the four zones to represent other areas in Enugu urban where property developments take place.

Such rights of communal land owner and property owners were usurped by the government thereby reducing their rights of occupancy to 99 years lease instead of allodia or absolute ownership.

 

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This research work was highly tideous, though extremely educative. The researcher therefore, encountered constraints during the course of this project especially finance, which made him redistrict the study to certain areas.

Again time factor limited this study as I shared time among the project and other academic work. More so, the commitments of the researcher to the welfare of Estate Management Association (EMA) IMT as the president slightly delayed this work.

The provisions of the Land Use Act are too extensive to be compressed into few pages. For the purpose of this study, only the arrangements of sections and the provisions pertaining to valuation and its effects are covered.

Although the scope of this work was limited by time and finance, the researcher was able to carryout the work to completion.

 

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study of the Land Use Act No. 6, 1978 with eight (8) parts and fifty one (51) sections is the most significant land policy currently in force in Nigeria. The study will be of benefit to the government o its planning control and property acquisition procedures.

Most intending property development are scared by the compensation tedinque if a property is revoked by the governor for overriding public interest, hence, this study will assist the developers for prudent appraisals.

State surveyors and values coded apply the result of this research. Work in their future valuation for compulsory acquisition and in their advisory role to the public. Students and lecturers in Estate management Professional will not find this work insignificant as it explained areas of controversy in this act.

With this input in Estate Management Professional, property developers will increase geometrically as recommendations preferred in this work will improve the compensation receivable by them in the event of revocation of their property rights by public bodies.

 

 

1.7 BASIS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY

The basis of this research is solely on land use. The speculators, private investors, the estate surveyors and valuers, farmers etc. who normally perform daily activities on land to earn their livings.

With these cadres of works of life, one can easily detect the negative and positive impacts of the Land Use Act to the entire society.

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE EFFECT OF SLUM ON PROPERTY VALUE

ABSTRACT

 

This work discusses the effect of slum on property value. A hundred and twenty questionnaires were shared amongst people from selected states in Nigeria. Interviews and surveys were also conducted.

 

Primary and secondary data were used the analysis. Both frequency distribution and regression analysis were used.

 

It was observed therefore that slum has a significant negative effect on property value in Nigeria. Also,there is a negative relationship between slum and property value in Nigeria.

TABLE OF CONTENT:

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

1.2  Statement of the Research Problem

1.3  Objectives of the Study

1.4  Significance of the Study

1.5  Research Questions

1.6  Research Hypothesis

1.7  Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8  Assumptions

1.9  Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1  Sources of Literature

2.2  The Review

2.3  Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1  Research Method

3.2  Research Design

3.3  Research Sample

3.4  Measuring Instrument

3.5  Data Collection

3.6  Data Analysis

3.7  Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1  Data Analysis

4.2  Results

4.3  Discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1  Summary

5.2  Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL