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MARITIME FRAUD AND ITS EFFECT ON NIGERIA SEA PORT-A STUDY OF APAPA PORT

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

LIST OF TABLE

LIST OF FIGURES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1           INTRODUCTION

1.2           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.3           STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

1.4           RESEARCH QUESTIONT

1.5           OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.6           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.7           STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

1.8           JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

1.9           SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.10     DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    INTRODUCTION

2.2    THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

2.3    THE MARITIME INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

2.4     NIGERIAN MARITIME CABOTAGE

2.5    THE ROLE OF THE NIGERIAN CUSTOMS SERVICE

2.6    INTEGRITY IN THE NIGERIA CUSTOMS SERVICE

2.7    THE EVOLUTION OF NIGERIAN SEAPORTS

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1    INTRODUCTION

3.2    AREA OF STUDY

3.3    RESEARCH DESIGN

3.4    POPULATION OF STUDY

3.5    SAMPLE SIZE

3.6    SAMPLE/SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.7    RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

3.8    VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.9    ADMINISTATION OF THE STUDY

3.10  METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

3.11  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 

CHAPTER FOUR –DATA, ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

4.1    DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.2    RESEARCH FINDINGS

4.3    DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

CHAPTER FIVE- SUMMARY, CONCLUTION, RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2    CONCLUTION

5.3    RECOMMENDATION

5.4    PROPOSAL FOR FUTHER STUDIES

 

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

This study was on the study of maritime fraud and its effect on competitiveness of Nigerian ports. This study was guided by the following objectives; to evaluate if marketing research can be used as a measure of development of a firm, to evaluate if marketing research can survive a firm economically, to determine the extent to which marketing research can be used in satisfying customers. The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the correlation statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 50 employees of Nigerian port authorityLagos branch.

The study findings revealed that there is a negative significant relationship between maritime fraud and Nigerian port competitiveness; based on the findings from the study, the Nigerian government and indeed the Nigerian port authority should strive to ensure that maritime fraud is a thing of the past.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Despite the efforts of the government of Nigeria in fighting corruption in all sector, several unwholesome activities is still going on in the maritime sector most importantly by the shipping agencies and terminal operators, under the watchful eyes of government agencies, conniving to slam fictitious charges on importers and agents in what has been described in the maritime domain as a ceaseless economic rape.The product of this organized graft, which often runs into several billions of naira annually has continued to swell the volume of the capital flight the country suffers yearly.Following this scheme, used vehicles, clothing, food items and other goods are now cheaper to buy in Cotonou, Lome and Ghana markets, than when purchased in Nigeria (Thisday, 2015).

The sour side of is anomaly is that importers and clearing agents, in their battle to survive and grow in business, later pass the prohibitive charges to the consumers who now pay far more for the goods than necessary.

According to previous findings, the terminal operators, shipping lines and shipping agents have taken advantage of the largely unregulated maritime industry in Nigeria to hike charges like demurrage, and container deposit, among others, which are at variance with what obtains in neighboring West African ports.A full analysis of shipping charges conducted in three African countries – Nigeria, Ghana and Benin Republic by a maritime industry medium, “Shipping Position,” shows that port charges inNigerian remain the highest in the ECOWAS region.Experts have, however, attributed the high charges to the unwholesome practices among shipping companies operating at Nigerian ports.Again while it takes few days to get the container deposit refund in other ports once the empty container is returned, it may take up to three months in Nigeria because the terminal operators allegedly delay receiving it in order to build up demurrage that may eat up the deposit.Other charges not collected in other countries but obtainable in Nigeria include MOWCA levy and stamp duty (Tancott, 2015).

Importers are also perplexed that contrary to what is obtainable in other West African countries’ ports, Nigeria only offers three days free of progressive storage charge while Benin, Ghana and Cote D’Ivoire offer seven days free of progressive storage charges.Maritime experts have argued that the development was threatening the nation’s sea hub status as Cotonou, Lome and Accra ports are snatching cargoes from Nigeria.It is feared that the partial cargo drought often experienced in the country, is attributable to this development as some shipping companies prefer to call at other West African ports where they enjoy huge incentives, especially reduced charges are largely the outcome of such practices (Tancott, 2015).The soaring frequency of smuggling is because some importers may not make profit after paying all charges at the ports.

Other stakeholders like the Nigeria Customs Service (NCS), Nigeria Immigration Service, Quarantine Service, Port Health and the Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA) who are also part of the import chain also contribute to the delay in carrying out clearing duties and corruption at the nation’s ports. All these have made business very difficult and affected competiveness of the maritime sector in Nigeria.

Apapain Lagos State, Nigeria contains a number of ports and terminals operated by the Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA), including the major port of Lagos State and Lagos Port Complex (LPC).The region of Apapa lies near the mouth of Lagos lagoon, and contains ports and terminals for various commodities such as containers and bulk cargo, houses, offices and a small old disused railway station (Apapa North). It is the site of a major container terminal which was owned and operated by the Federal Government of Nigeria until March 2005, and now is operated by the Danish firm A. P. Moller-Maersk Group (Wikipedia, 2016).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Ports play a key role in the Nigeria economy and development, as nearly 75% of the trade between the Nigeria and the rest of the world is handled in ports. Thus, the importance of ensuring efficiency in ports is related to the ability of the country to be competitive at international level. Unfortunately corruption and extortion by the shipping agencies, terminal operators and the government officials has continued to frustrate importers leading to price hike of commodities, encouraged smuggling and the competiveness of Nigerian port as many importing prefer to patronize other ports in the neighboring West African countries. However, the researcher is examining the level of fraud in the maritime sector to ascertain its effect on competiveness of Nigerian port.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the level of maritime fraud in the Nigerian ports.
  2. To examine the effect of maritime fraud on the competiveness of Nigerian port.
  3. To identify how the maritime fraud can be combated.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the level of maritime fraud in the Nigerian ports?
  2. What is the effect of maritime fraud on the competiveness of Nigerian port?
  3. How can the maritime fraud can be combated?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is no significant relationship between maritime fraud and competiveness of Nigeria Port

HA: There is significant relationship between maritime fraud and competiveness of Nigeria Port

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this study will enlighten the government of Nigeria and the general public on the spate of corruption going on in the maritime sector and how it affects the competiveness of the Nigeria port. It will also educate on approaches to combat the menace of corruption in the maritime sector.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the level of fraud being carried out in the Nigerian maritime sector and how it affects the competitiveness of the Nigerian Ports.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

MARITIME FRAUD AND ITS EFFECT ON NIGERIA SEA PORT-A STUDY OF APAPA PORT

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

LIST OF TABLE

LIST OF FIGURES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1           INTRODUCTION

1.2           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.3           STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

1.4           RESEARCH QUESTIONT

1.5           OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.6           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.7           STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

1.8           JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

1.9           SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.10     DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    INTRODUCTION

2.2    THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

2.3    THE MARITIME INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

2.4     NIGERIAN MARITIME CABOTAGE

2.5    THE ROLE OF THE NIGERIAN CUSTOMS SERVICE

2.6    INTEGRITY IN THE NIGERIA CUSTOMS SERVICE

2.7    THE EVOLUTION OF NIGERIAN SEAPORTS

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1    INTRODUCTION

3.2    AREA OF STUDY

3.3    RESEARCH DESIGN

3.4    POPULATION OF STUDY

3.5    SAMPLE SIZE

3.6    SAMPLE/SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.7    RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

3.8    VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.9    ADMINISTATION OF THE STUDY

3.10  METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

3.11  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 

CHAPTER FOUR –DATA, ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

4.1    DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.2    RESEARCH FINDINGS

4.3    DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

CHAPTER FIVE- SUMMARY, CONCLUTION, RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2    CONCLUTION

5.3    RECOMMENDATION

5.4    PROPOSAL FOR FUTHER STUDIES

 

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

This study was on the study of maritime fraud and its effect on competitiveness of Nigerian ports. This study was guided by the following objectives; to evaluate if marketing research can be used as a measure of development of a firm, to evaluate if marketing research can survive a firm economically, to determine the extent to which marketing research can be used in satisfying customers. The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the correlation statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 50 employees of Nigerian port authorityLagos branch.

The study findings revealed that there is a negative significant relationship between maritime fraud and Nigerian port competitiveness; based on the findings from the study, the Nigerian government and indeed the Nigerian port authority should strive to ensure that maritime fraud is a thing of the past.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Despite the efforts of the government of Nigeria in fighting corruption in all sector, several unwholesome activities is still going on in the maritime sector most importantly by the shipping agencies and terminal operators, under the watchful eyes of government agencies, conniving to slam fictitious charges on importers and agents in what has been described in the maritime domain as a ceaseless economic rape.The product of this organized graft, which often runs into several billions of naira annually has continued to swell the volume of the capital flight the country suffers yearly.Following this scheme, used vehicles, clothing, food items and other goods are now cheaper to buy in Cotonou, Lome and Ghana markets, than when purchased in Nigeria (Thisday, 2015).

The sour side of is anomaly is that importers and clearing agents, in their battle to survive and grow in business, later pass the prohibitive charges to the consumers who now pay far more for the goods than necessary.

According to previous findings, the terminal operators, shipping lines and shipping agents have taken advantage of the largely unregulated maritime industry in Nigeria to hike charges like demurrage, and container deposit, among others, which are at variance with what obtains in neighboring West African ports.A full analysis of shipping charges conducted in three African countries – Nigeria, Ghana and Benin Republic by a maritime industry medium, “Shipping Position,” shows that port charges inNigerian remain the highest in the ECOWAS region.Experts have, however, attributed the high charges to the unwholesome practices among shipping companies operating at Nigerian ports.Again while it takes few days to get the container deposit refund in other ports once the empty container is returned, it may take up to three months in Nigeria because the terminal operators allegedly delay receiving it in order to build up demurrage that may eat up the deposit.Other charges not collected in other countries but obtainable in Nigeria include MOWCA levy and stamp duty (Tancott, 2015).

Importers are also perplexed that contrary to what is obtainable in other West African countries’ ports, Nigeria only offers three days free of progressive storage charge while Benin, Ghana and Cote D’Ivoire offer seven days free of progressive storage charges.Maritime experts have argued that the development was threatening the nation’s sea hub status as Cotonou, Lome and Accra ports are snatching cargoes from Nigeria.It is feared that the partial cargo drought often experienced in the country, is attributable to this development as some shipping companies prefer to call at other West African ports where they enjoy huge incentives, especially reduced charges are largely the outcome of such practices (Tancott, 2015).The soaring frequency of smuggling is because some importers may not make profit after paying all charges at the ports.

Other stakeholders like the Nigeria Customs Service (NCS), Nigeria Immigration Service, Quarantine Service, Port Health and the Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA) who are also part of the import chain also contribute to the delay in carrying out clearing duties and corruption at the nation’s ports. All these have made business very difficult and affected competiveness of the maritime sector in Nigeria.

Apapain Lagos State, Nigeria contains a number of ports and terminals operated by the Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA), including the major port of Lagos State and Lagos Port Complex (LPC).The region of Apapa lies near the mouth of Lagos lagoon, and contains ports and terminals for various commodities such as containers and bulk cargo, houses, offices and a small old disused railway station (Apapa North). It is the site of a major container terminal which was owned and operated by the Federal Government of Nigeria until March 2005, and now is operated by the Danish firm A. P. Moller-Maersk Group (Wikipedia, 2016).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Ports play a key role in the Nigeria economy and development, as nearly 75% of the trade between the Nigeria and the rest of the world is handled in ports. Thus, the importance of ensuring efficiency in ports is related to the ability of the country to be competitive at international level. Unfortunately corruption and extortion by the shipping agencies, terminal operators and the government officials has continued to frustrate importers leading to price hike of commodities, encouraged smuggling and the competiveness of Nigerian port as many importing prefer to patronize other ports in the neighboring West African countries. However, the researcher is examining the level of fraud in the maritime sector to ascertain its effect on competiveness of Nigerian port.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the level of maritime fraud in the Nigerian ports.
  2. To examine the effect of maritime fraud on the competiveness of Nigerian port.
  3. To identify how the maritime fraud can be combated.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the level of maritime fraud in the Nigerian ports?
  2. What is the effect of maritime fraud on the competiveness of Nigerian port?
  3. How can the maritime fraud can be combated?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is no significant relationship between maritime fraud and competiveness of Nigeria Port

HA: There is significant relationship between maritime fraud and competiveness of Nigeria Port

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this study will enlighten the government of Nigeria and the general public on the spate of corruption going on in the maritime sector and how it affects the competiveness of the Nigeria port. It will also educate on approaches to combat the menace of corruption in the maritime sector.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the level of fraud being carried out in the Nigerian maritime sector and how it affects the competitiveness of the Nigerian Ports.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE STUDY OF MARITIME FRAUD AND ITS EFFECT ON COMPETITIVENESS OF NIGERIAN PORT (A CASE STUDY OF APAPA PORT)

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

LIST OF TABLE

LIST OF FIGURES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1           INTRODUCTION

1.2           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.3           STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

1.4           RESEARCH QUESTIONT

1.5           OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.6           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.7           STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

1.8           JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

1.9           SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.10     DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    INTRODUCTION

2.2    THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

2.3    THE MARITIME INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

2.4     NIGERIAN MARITIME CABOTAGE

2.5    THE ROLE OF THE NIGERIAN CUSTOMS SERVICE

2.6    INTEGRITY IN THE NIGERIA CUSTOMS SERVICE

2.7    THE EVOLUTION OF NIGERIAN SEAPORTS

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1    INTRODUCTION

3.2    AREA OF STUDY

3.3    RESEARCH DESIGN

3.4    POPULATION OF STUDY

3.5    SAMPLE SIZE

3.6    SAMPLE/SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.7    RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

3.8    VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.9    ADMINISTATION OF THE STUDY

3.10  METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

3.11  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 

CHAPTER FOUR –DATA, ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

4.1    DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.2    RESEARCH FINDINGS

4.3    DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

CHAPTER FIVE- SUMMARY, CONCLUTION, RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2    CONCLUTION

5.3    RECOMMENDATION

5.4    PROPOSAL FOR FUTHER STUDIES

 

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

This study was on the study of maritime fraud and its effect on competitiveness of Nigerian ports. This study was guided by the following objectives; to evaluate if marketing research can be used as a measure of development of a firm, to evaluate if marketing research can survive a firm economically, to determine the extent to which marketing research can be used in satisfying customers. The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the correlation statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 50 employees of Nigerian port authorityLagos branch.

The study findings revealed that there is a negative significant relationship between maritime fraud and Nigerian port competitiveness; based on the findings from the study, the Nigerian government and indeed the Nigerian port authority should strive to ensure that maritime fraud is a thing of the past.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Despite the efforts of the government of Nigeria in fighting corruption in all sector, several unwholesome activities is still going on in the maritime sector most importantly by the shipping agencies and terminal operators, under the watchful eyes of government agencies, conniving to slam fictitious charges on importers and agents in what has been described in the maritime domain as a ceaseless economic rape.The product of this organized graft, which often runs into several billions of naira annually has continued to swell the volume of the capital flight the country suffers yearly.Following this scheme, used vehicles, clothing, food items and other goods are now cheaper to buy in Cotonou, Lome and Ghana markets, than when purchased in Nigeria (Thisday, 2015).

The sour side of is anomaly is that importers and clearing agents, in their battle to survive and grow in business, later pass the prohibitive charges to the consumers who now pay far more for the goods than necessary.

According to previous findings, the terminal operators, shipping lines and shipping agents have taken advantage of the largely unregulated maritime industry in Nigeria to hike charges like demurrage, and container deposit, among others, which are at variance with what obtains in neighboring West African ports.A full analysis of shipping charges conducted in three African countries – Nigeria, Ghana and Benin Republic by a maritime industry medium, “Shipping Position,” shows that port charges inNigerian remain the highest in the ECOWAS region.Experts have, however, attributed the high charges to the unwholesome practices among shipping companies operating at Nigerian ports.Again while it takes few days to get the container deposit refund in other ports once the empty container is returned, it may take up to three months in Nigeria because the terminal operators allegedly delay receiving it in order to build up demurrage that may eat up the deposit.Other charges not collected in other countries but obtainable in Nigeria include MOWCA levy and stamp duty (Tancott, 2015).

Importers are also perplexed that contrary to what is obtainable in other West African countries’ ports, Nigeria only offers three days free of progressive storage charge while Benin, Ghana and Cote D’Ivoire offer seven days free of progressive storage charges.Maritime experts have argued that the development was threatening the nation’s sea hub status as Cotonou, Lome and Accra ports are snatching cargoes from Nigeria.It is feared that the partial cargo drought often experienced in the country, is attributable to this development as some shipping companies prefer to call at other West African ports where they enjoy huge incentives, especially reduced charges are largely the outcome of such practices (Tancott, 2015).The soaring frequency of smuggling is because some importers may not make profit after paying all charges at the ports.

Other stakeholders like the Nigeria Customs Service (NCS), Nigeria Immigration Service, Quarantine Service, Port Health and the Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA) who are also part of the import chain also contribute to the delay in carrying out clearing duties and corruption at the nation’s ports. All these have made business very difficult and affected competiveness of the maritime sector in Nigeria.

Apapain Lagos State, Nigeria contains a number of ports and terminals operated by the Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA), including the major port of Lagos State and Lagos Port Complex (LPC).The region of Apapa lies near the mouth of Lagos lagoon, and contains ports and terminals for various commodities such as containers and bulk cargo, houses, offices and a small old disused railway station (Apapa North). It is the site of a major container terminal which was owned and operated by the Federal Government of Nigeria until March 2005, and now is operated by the Danish firm A. P. Moller-Maersk Group (Wikipedia, 2016).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Ports play a key role in the Nigeria economy and development, as nearly 75% of the trade between the Nigeria and the rest of the world is handled in ports. Thus, the importance of ensuring efficiency in ports is related to the ability of the country to be competitive at international level. Unfortunately corruption and extortion by the shipping agencies, terminal operators and the government officials has continued to frustrate importers leading to price hike of commodities, encouraged smuggling and the competiveness of Nigerian port as many importing prefer to patronize other ports in the neighboring West African countries. However, the researcher is examining the level of fraud in the maritime sector to ascertain its effect on competiveness of Nigerian port.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the level of maritime fraud in the Nigerian ports.
  2. To examine the effect of maritime fraud on the competiveness of Nigerian port.
  3. To identify how the maritime fraud can be combated.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the level of maritime fraud in the Nigerian ports?
  2. What is the effect of maritime fraud on the competiveness of Nigerian port?
  3. How can the maritime fraud can be combated?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is no significant relationship between maritime fraud and competiveness of Nigeria Port

HA: There is significant relationship between maritime fraud and competiveness of Nigeria Port

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this study will enlighten the government of Nigeria and the general public on the spate of corruption going on in the maritime sector and how it affects the competiveness of the Nigeria port. It will also educate on approaches to combat the menace of corruption in the maritime sector.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the level of fraud being carried out in the Nigerian maritime sector and how it affects the competitiveness of the Nigerian Ports.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#10000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE STUDY OF MARITIME FRAUD AND ITS EFFECT ON COMPETITIVENESS OF NIGERIAN PORT (A CASE STUDY OF APAPA PORT)

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

LIST OF TABLE

LIST OF FIGURES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1           INTRODUCTION

1.2           BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.3           STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

1.4           RESEARCH QUESTIONT

1.5           OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.6           SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.7           STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

1.8           JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

1.9           SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.10     DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    INTRODUCTION

2.2    THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

2.3    THE MARITIME INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

2.4     NIGERIAN MARITIME CABOTAGE

2.5    THE ROLE OF THE NIGERIAN CUSTOMS SERVICE

2.6    INTEGRITY IN THE NIGERIA CUSTOMS SERVICE

2.7    THE EVOLUTION OF NIGERIAN SEAPORTS

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1    INTRODUCTION

3.2    AREA OF STUDY

3.3    RESEARCH DESIGN

3.4    POPULATION OF STUDY

3.5    SAMPLE SIZE

3.6    SAMPLE/SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.7    RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

3.8    VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.9    ADMINISTATION OF THE STUDY

3.10  METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

3.11  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 

CHAPTER FOUR –DATA, ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

4.1    DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.2    RESEARCH FINDINGS

4.3    DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

CHAPTER FIVE- SUMMARY, CONCLUTION, RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

5.2    CONCLUTION

5.3    RECOMMENDATION

5.4    PROPOSAL FOR FUTHER STUDIES

 

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

This study was on the study of maritime fraud and its effect on competitiveness of Nigerian ports. This study was guided by the following objectives; to evaluate if marketing research can be used as a measure of development of a firm, to evaluate if marketing research can survive a firm economically, to determine the extent to which marketing research can be used in satisfying customers. The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the correlation statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 50 employees of Nigerian port authorityLagos branch.

The study findings revealed that there is a negative significant relationship between maritime fraud and Nigerian port competitiveness; based on the findings from the study, the Nigerian government and indeed the Nigerian port authority should strive to ensure that maritime fraud is a thing of the past.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Despite the efforts of the government of Nigeria in fighting corruption in all sector, several unwholesome activities is still going on in the maritime sector most importantly by the shipping agencies and terminal operators, under the watchful eyes of government agencies, conniving to slam fictitious charges on importers and agents in what has been described in the maritime domain as a ceaseless economic rape.The product of this organized graft, which often runs into several billions of naira annually has continued to swell the volume of the capital flight the country suffers yearly.Following this scheme, used vehicles, clothing, food items and other goods are now cheaper to buy in Cotonou, Lome and Ghana markets, than when purchased in Nigeria (Thisday, 2015).

The sour side of is anomaly is that importers and clearing agents, in their battle to survive and grow in business, later pass the prohibitive charges to the consumers who now pay far more for the goods than necessary.

According to previous findings, the terminal operators, shipping lines and shipping agents have taken advantage of the largely unregulated maritime industry in Nigeria to hike charges like demurrage, and container deposit, among others, which are at variance with what obtains in neighboring West African ports.A full analysis of shipping charges conducted in three African countries – Nigeria, Ghana and Benin Republic by a maritime industry medium, “Shipping Position,” shows that port charges inNigerian remain the highest in the ECOWAS region.Experts have, however, attributed the high charges to the unwholesome practices among shipping companies operating at Nigerian ports.Again while it takes few days to get the container deposit refund in other ports once the empty container is returned, it may take up to three months in Nigeria because the terminal operators allegedly delay receiving it in order to build up demurrage that may eat up the deposit.Other charges not collected in other countries but obtainable in Nigeria include MOWCA levy and stamp duty (Tancott, 2015).

Importers are also perplexed that contrary to what is obtainable in other West African countries’ ports, Nigeria only offers three days free of progressive storage charge while Benin, Ghana and Cote D’Ivoire offer seven days free of progressive storage charges.Maritime experts have argued that the development was threatening the nation’s sea hub status as Cotonou, Lome and Accra ports are snatching cargoes from Nigeria.It is feared that the partial cargo drought often experienced in the country, is attributable to this development as some shipping companies prefer to call at other West African ports where they enjoy huge incentives, especially reduced charges are largely the outcome of such practices (Tancott, 2015).The soaring frequency of smuggling is because some importers may not make profit after paying all charges at the ports.

Other stakeholders like the Nigeria Customs Service (NCS), Nigeria Immigration Service, Quarantine Service, Port Health and the Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA) who are also part of the import chain also contribute to the delay in carrying out clearing duties and corruption at the nation’s ports. All these have made business very difficult and affected competiveness of the maritime sector in Nigeria.

Apapain Lagos State, Nigeria contains a number of ports and terminals operated by the Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA), including the major port of Lagos State and Lagos Port Complex (LPC).The region of Apapa lies near the mouth of Lagos lagoon, and contains ports and terminals for various commodities such as containers and bulk cargo, houses, offices and a small old disused railway station (Apapa North). It is the site of a major container terminal which was owned and operated by the Federal Government of Nigeria until March 2005, and now is operated by the Danish firm A. P. Moller-Maersk Group (Wikipedia, 2016).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Ports play a key role in the Nigeria economy and development, as nearly 75% of the trade between the Nigeria and the rest of the world is handled in ports. Thus, the importance of ensuring efficiency in ports is related to the ability of the country to be competitive at international level. Unfortunately corruption and extortion by the shipping agencies, terminal operators and the government officials has continued to frustrate importers leading to price hike of commodities, encouraged smuggling and the competiveness of Nigerian port as many importing prefer to patronize other ports in the neighboring West African countries. However, the researcher is examining the level of fraud in the maritime sector to ascertain its effect on competiveness of Nigerian port.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the level of maritime fraud in the Nigerian ports.
  2. To examine the effect of maritime fraud on the competiveness of Nigerian port.
  3. To identify how the maritime fraud can be combated.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the level of maritime fraud in the Nigerian ports?
  2. What is the effect of maritime fraud on the competiveness of Nigerian port?
  3. How can the maritime fraud can be combated?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: There is no significant relationship between maritime fraud and competiveness of Nigeria Port

HA: There is significant relationship between maritime fraud and competiveness of Nigeria Port

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this study will enlighten the government of Nigeria and the general public on the spate of corruption going on in the maritime sector and how it affects the competiveness of the Nigeria port. It will also educate on approaches to combat the menace of corruption in the maritime sector.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the level of fraud being carried out in the Nigerian maritime sector and how it affects the competitiveness of the Nigerian Ports.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

 

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE AND EFFICIENT CARGO DELIVERY IN NIGERIA PORT

ABSTRACT

This report examines the impact of improved infrastructure and efficient Cargo Delivery in Nigeria Port (A case study of Calabar Port Complex). The research also carried out a review of related literature in chapter to give the study the necessary theoretical background for the research work. The literature the Background of Marine Infrastructural Development, Current Marine Infrastructural Development in Nigeria, Channel Marking, buoys and lighthouse development in Nigeria were. The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage .While hypothesis was tested using chi- square test. The findings indicates Port infrastructure, if fully developed in Nigeria, has a big role to play in the development of our shipping sector by ensuring efficient cargo delivery from our ports. From the findings, it is also discovered that the major causes of poor infrastructural facilities in our ports are mainly from poor maintenance culture among Nigerians as well as poor finance in providing the necessary facilities needed in our ports. It is also discovered from the findings that bad infrastructure affect efficient cargo delivery in Nigeria ports especially that of Calabar Port because of inefficient draft, bigger ships find it mostly difficult to berth in the port. The findings also reveal that high costs of cargo delivery in Nigeria ports can be linked to inefficient cargo delivery in our ports. To this end the study recommended that Government and private terminal operators should provided the needed infrastructural facilities at the port to ensure efficient and effective cargo clearance and delivery. Also adequate funds should be made available by Governments and banks to ensure effective implementation of needed port facilities.

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

 

The following objectives are stated to guide the study.

 

To examine the impact of improved infrastructure on efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian port.

 

To determine the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian Ports.

 

To identify and assess the effects of bad infrastructure in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

To investigate the major category of port infrastructure.

 

1.4 Significance of the Study

 

This study is worth pursuing because improved infrastructure will enhances port cargo delivery in Nigerian ports, increased port productivity and performance and increased through put variables such as ship turn round time, cargo traffic loss through other ports e.g Cotonou, vessel delay time etc. the efficient infrastructure tends to help tackle port congestion problems, making Nigerian ports a hub in the West African Region, protect vessels and quays wall against damages as well as allowing for smooth maneuvering of vessels alongside the quays during berthing. The agencies of government will find the recommendations of the research useful on how to ensure efficient cargo delivery through improved infrastructure. It is also believed that the study will help investors knowing where they can safely invest their money in port infrastructures. The study will serve as a guide to more competent researchers to carry out further investigation. In summer, those to benefit from this research on completion include; government agencies, investors, general public, researcher/cadets, banks, maritime regulators and experts, marine insurance companies.

 

1.5 Research Questions

 

The following research questions are hereby stated for the study.

 

To what extent do improved infrastructure ensure efficient cargo delivery in Calabar Port, Nigeria?

 

What are the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian Ports?

 

Does bad infrastructure affect efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports?

 

What are the major categories of port infrastructures?

 

1.6 Research Hypothesis

 

1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between improved infrastructures and efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

H1: There is significant relationship between improved infrastructures and efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

2. Ho: Poor maintenance culture and inadequate finance is not the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian ports.

 

H1:Poor maintenance and inadequate finance is the major causes of poor infrastructures in Nigerian ports.

 

3. Ho: Bad infrastructure does not have negative effect in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

H1: Bad infrastructure have negative effect in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

4. Ho: There is no significance relationship between marine and overland infrastructure.

 

H1: There is significance relationship between marine and overland infrastructure.

 

1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study

 

The following assumptions were made in the study;

 

Improved infrastructure ensures efficient cargo delivery.

 

The distributed questionnaires will be collected and used adequately without bias.

That Calabar port shall provide a true and unbiased information for the study being the case study.

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#10000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE IMPACT OF IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE AND EFFICIENT CARGO DELIVERY IN NIGERIA PORT

ABSTRACT

This report examines the impact of improved infrastructure and efficient Cargo Delivery in Nigeria Port (A case study of Calabar Port Complex). The research also carried out a review of related literature in chapter to give the study the necessary theoretical background for the research work. The literature the Background of Marine Infrastructural Development, Current Marine Infrastructural Development in Nigeria, Channel Marking, buoys and lighthouse development in Nigeria were. The research design used in this report is descriptive design, utilizing questionnaire method to obtain information from the respondents for this project. Primary data were collected from the primary source which questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection while secondary data were sources from textbooks, journals, newspapers and the internet were employed. The data were presented on a frequency distribution table and analyzed using simple percentage .While hypothesis was tested using chi- square test. The findings indicates Port infrastructure, if fully developed in Nigeria, has a big role to play in the development of our shipping sector by ensuring efficient cargo delivery from our ports. From the findings, it is also discovered that the major causes of poor infrastructural facilities in our ports are mainly from poor maintenance culture among Nigerians as well as poor finance in providing the necessary facilities needed in our ports. It is also discovered from the findings that bad infrastructure affect efficient cargo delivery in Nigeria ports especially that of Calabar Port because of inefficient draft, bigger ships find it mostly difficult to berth in the port. The findings also reveal that high costs of cargo delivery in Nigeria ports can be linked to inefficient cargo delivery in our ports. To this end the study recommended that Government and private terminal operators should provided the needed infrastructural facilities at the port to ensure efficient and effective cargo clearance and delivery. Also adequate funds should be made available by Governments and banks to ensure effective implementation of needed port facilities.

 

1.3 Objectives of the Study

 

The following objectives are stated to guide the study.

 

To examine the impact of improved infrastructure on efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian port.

 

To determine the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian Ports.

 

To identify and assess the effects of bad infrastructure in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

To investigate the major category of port infrastructure.

 

1.4 Significance of the Study

 

This study is worth pursuing because improved infrastructure will enhances port cargo delivery in Nigerian ports, increased port productivity and performance and increased through put variables such as ship turn round time, cargo traffic loss through other ports e.g Cotonou, vessel delay time etc. the efficient infrastructure tends to help tackle port congestion problems, making Nigerian ports a hub in the West African Region, protect vessels and quays wall against damages as well as allowing for smooth maneuvering of vessels alongside the quays during berthing. The agencies of government will find the recommendations of the research useful on how to ensure efficient cargo delivery through improved infrastructure. It is also believed that the study will help investors knowing where they can safely invest their money in port infrastructures. The study will serve as a guide to more competent researchers to carry out further investigation. In summer, those to benefit from this research on completion include; government agencies, investors, general public, researcher/cadets, banks, maritime regulators and experts, marine insurance companies.

 

1.5 Research Questions

 

The following research questions are hereby stated for the study.

 

To what extent do improved infrastructure ensure efficient cargo delivery in Calabar Port, Nigeria?

 

What are the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian Ports?

 

Does bad infrastructure affect efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports?

 

What are the major categories of port infrastructures?

 

1.6 Research Hypothesis

 

1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between improved infrastructures and efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

H1: There is significant relationship between improved infrastructures and efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

2. Ho: Poor maintenance culture and inadequate finance is not the major causes of poor infrastructure in Nigerian ports.

 

H1:Poor maintenance and inadequate finance is the major causes of poor infrastructures in Nigerian ports.

 

3. Ho: Bad infrastructure does not have negative effect in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

H1: Bad infrastructure have negative effect in efficient cargo delivery in Nigerian ports.

 

4. Ho: There is no significance relationship between marine and overland infrastructure.

 

H1: There is significance relationship between marine and overland infrastructure.

 

1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study

 

The following assumptions were made in the study;

 

Improved infrastructure ensures efficient cargo delivery.

 

The distributed questionnaires will be collected and used adequately without bias.

That Calabar port shall provide a true and unbiased information for the study being the case study.

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF ACCIDENT INVOLVING MARINE VESSELS IN NIGERIA’S WATERWAYS

Background of the study

A vessel accident is an unintended happening. Its severity may vary from no vessel damage to the complete loss of the vessel, no cargo damage, to loss of the entire cargo, and no crew injuries to deaths (Talley, Jin, & Kite-Powell, 2005). Thus, vessels safety regulations and their enforcement focus on prevention and reduction of severity of marine vessel accident. Accident involving marine vessels is common in inland and coastal navigation where requisite safety regulation may not be strictly observed. This is of serious consequence since such occurrences impact on safety of shipping in inland/coastal and inland waterways especially in developing countries.

 

In recent times, cases of marine vessel casualties involving personal injury, deaths and property/ environmental damage have grown in tandem with increased vessel traffic associated with oil prospecting activities and other commercial seaborne transportation in Niger-Delta/coastal regions of Nigeria. For example, statistics (cumulative figures) based on the study carried out by Dogarawa (2012) indicate that between year 2000 to 2009, a total number of five hundred and fifty- two (552) persons died either as a result of marine vessel and boat capsizing or collision in inland waters of Nigeria. This figure indicates an average fatality rate of about 55 deaths per year excluding vessel and cargo losses, in Nigeria’s coastal and inland waterways in the last ten years. Based on anecdotal evidence from some of the investigated cases; over- loading, excessive speeding, poor attention to weather condition, abandoned wrecks on navigation channels, incompetence and inadequate navigational aids are implicated. Across the globe, similar cases of marine vessels accidents at sea (and in seaports) have been documented. For example: Darbra and Casal (2004) conducted a study on 471 cases of marine accidents that occurred from 1941-2002 in Hong Kong. They observe that 57% of the accidents occurred while vessel was underway at sea and 43% of accident in ports. Various causal factors have been documented; for example, the Maritime Safety Authority of New Zealand asserts that between the periods of 1995 -1996; 49% of marine vessel incidents were attributed to human factors, 35% due to technical factors while 16% were caused by environmental factors. Similarly Rothblum (2002), reports that between 75 and 96% of marine vessel casualties are caused atleast in part by some form of human error. Further empirical evidence also indicates that human error accounts for 84-88% of tanker accidents, 79% of towing vessel groundings, 89-96% of collisions, 75% of all collisions, 75% of fires and explosions (Rothblum, 2002).

 

Similarly, Talley et al. (2005) observe that UK Thomas P&I Club survey of 1,500 insurance claims for shipping accidents around the world between 1987 and 1990, had found that 90% of the accidents were caused by human error. Two-thirds of the accidents involving personal injury claims were due to human error, e.g. carelessness or recklessness under commercial pressures, a misplaced sense of overconfidence, or a lack of either knowledge or experience. Human factor in this context is defined by Rothblum (2002) as one of the following: incorrect decision, an improperly performed action, or an improper lack of action (inaction). These statistics are disturbing given the level of measures so far adopted by local and international organizations to improve the standard of shipping and navigation.

 

Maritime safety is governed by the combination of international rules and regulations, national regulations of the flag states and port states, port regulations, rules of the Classification Societies and Insurance Companies.

 

In addition, quite a number of conventions have been ratified by contracting governments some of which include: International Conventions on Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Standards for Training and Watch Keeping (STCW); International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). Others are International Convention on Loadlines (LL) and Convention on International Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea (COLREG) etc. This regulatory system, which is supported by the Safety Management Systems of the shipping companies serve as a framework for continuous assessment of safety regimes in the world maritime industry. Prior to 1998, the focus of ratified IMO safety conventions was the vessel, e.g. its construction and equipment, rather than human actions aboard the vessel. The subsequent introduction of IMO’s International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention changed the focus from the vessel to human actions on board vessel. By this code, shipping lines are now required to document their management procedures for detecting and eliminating unsafe human behavior. This shift towards regulating human actions aboard a vessel was motivated by the fact that: (i) most vessel accidents are caused by human error; (ii) vessel accident claims are often attributed to human error; and (iii) it is less expensive to change human behavior than it is to redesign vessels for safety (Talley, et al., 2005).

 

1.2 Statement of the problem

The key to preventing marine vessel accident caused by human related factors however is to identify the types of risk factors, and then apply relevant intervention to check those factors in the future. Many operators undertake such efforts internally, and the IMO and industry trade groups have made significant advances in developing prevention programs that address human factors. However, there is room for improvement, both in terms of preventive initiatives and the metrics used to gauge their effectiveness. The outcome of this research will improve both our understanding of the contribution of human and other causal factors of accident involving marine vessel and hence support implementation of prevention measures that effectively target these factors.

 

1.3    Objectives of the study

The objectives of this study are to:

i. Assess the incidence of marine vessel accidents in Nigeria’s waterways.

 

ii. Determine the risk factors that lead to marine vessel accidents in Nigeria’s waterways.

 

Consequently, we postulate and test the following hypothesis at α = 0.05:

i. Human factors related to safety training, overloading of vessel and speeding are not significant causes of marine vessel accident.

ii. Environmental factors related to wind, visibility, sea condition and weather condition do not significantly cause marine vessels accident.

iii. Marine vessel equipment/machinery failure is not significant causal factor of accident.

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#20000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

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Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

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7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL

AN ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF ACCIDENT INVOLVING MARINE VESSELS IN NIGERIA’S WATERWAYS

Background of the study

A vessel accident is an unintended happening. Its severity may vary from no vessel damage to the complete loss of the vessel, no cargo damage, to loss of the entire cargo, and no crew injuries to deaths (Talley, Jin, & Kite-Powell, 2005). Thus, vessels safety regulations and their enforcement focus on prevention and reduction of severity of marine vessel accident. Accident involving marine vessels is common in inland and coastal navigation where requisite safety regulation may not be strictly observed. This is of serious consequence since such occurrences impact on safety of shipping in inland/coastal and inland waterways especially in developing countries.

 

In recent times, cases of marine vessel casualties involving personal injury, deaths and property/ environmental damage have grown in tandem with increased vessel traffic associated with oil prospecting activities and other commercial seaborne transportation in Niger-Delta/coastal regions of Nigeria. For example, statistics (cumulative figures) based on the study carried out by Dogarawa (2012) indicate that between year 2000 to 2009, a total number of five hundred and fifty- two (552) persons died either as a result of marine vessel and boat capsizing or collision in inland waters of Nigeria. This figure indicates an average fatality rate of about 55 deaths per year excluding vessel and cargo losses, in Nigeria’s coastal and inland waterways in the last ten years. Based on anecdotal evidence from some of the investigated cases; over- loading, excessive speeding, poor attention to weather condition, abandoned wrecks on navigation channels, incompetence and inadequate navigational aids are implicated. Across the globe, similar cases of marine vessels accidents at sea (and in seaports) have been documented. For example: Darbra and Casal (2004) conducted a study on 471 cases of marine accidents that occurred from 1941-2002 in Hong Kong. They observe that 57% of the accidents occurred while vessel was underway at sea and 43% of accident in ports. Various causal factors have been documented; for example, the Maritime Safety Authority of New Zealand asserts that between the periods of 1995 -1996; 49% of marine vessel incidents were attributed to human factors, 35% due to technical factors while 16% were caused by environmental factors. Similarly Rothblum (2002), reports that between 75 and 96% of marine vessel casualties are caused atleast in part by some form of human error. Further empirical evidence also indicates that human error accounts for 84-88% of tanker accidents, 79% of towing vessel groundings, 89-96% of collisions, 75% of all collisions, 75% of fires and explosions (Rothblum, 2002).

 

Similarly, Talley et al. (2005) observe that UK Thomas P&I Club survey of 1,500 insurance claims for shipping accidents around the world between 1987 and 1990, had found that 90% of the accidents were caused by human error. Two-thirds of the accidents involving personal injury claims were due to human error, e.g. carelessness or recklessness under commercial pressures, a misplaced sense of overconfidence, or a lack of either knowledge or experience. Human factor in this context is defined by Rothblum (2002) as one of the following: incorrect decision, an improperly performed action, or an improper lack of action (inaction). These statistics are disturbing given the level of measures so far adopted by local and international organizations to improve the standard of shipping and navigation.

 

Maritime safety is governed by the combination of international rules and regulations, national regulations of the flag states and port states, port regulations, rules of the Classification Societies and Insurance Companies.

 

In addition, quite a number of conventions have been ratified by contracting governments some of which include: International Conventions on Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Standards for Training and Watch Keeping (STCW); International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). Others are International Convention on Loadlines (LL) and Convention on International Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea (COLREG) etc. This regulatory system, which is supported by the Safety Management Systems of the shipping companies serve as a framework for continuous assessment of safety regimes in the world maritime industry. Prior to 1998, the focus of ratified IMO safety conventions was the vessel, e.g. its construction and equipment, rather than human actions aboard the vessel. The subsequent introduction of IMO’s International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention changed the focus from the vessel to human actions on board vessel. By this code, shipping lines are now required to document their management procedures for detecting and eliminating unsafe human behavior. This shift towards regulating human actions aboard a vessel was motivated by the fact that: (i) most vessel accidents are caused by human error; (ii) vessel accident claims are often attributed to human error; and (iii) it is less expensive to change human behavior than it is to redesign vessels for safety (Talley, et al., 2005).

 

1.2 Statement of the problem

The key to preventing marine vessel accident caused by human related factors however is to identify the types of risk factors, and then apply relevant intervention to check those factors in the future. Many operators undertake such efforts internally, and the IMO and industry trade groups have made significant advances in developing prevention programs that address human factors. However, there is room for improvement, both in terms of preventive initiatives and the metrics used to gauge their effectiveness. The outcome of this research will improve both our understanding of the contribution of human and other causal factors of accident involving marine vessel and hence support implementation of prevention measures that effectively target these factors.

 

1.3    Objectives of the study

The objectives of this study are to:

i. Assess the incidence of marine vessel accidents in Nigeria’s waterways.

 

ii. Determine the risk factors that lead to marine vessel accidents in Nigeria’s waterways.

 

Consequently, we postulate and test the following hypothesis at α = 0.05:

i. Human factors related to safety training, overloading of vessel and speeding are not significant causes of marine vessel accident.

ii. Environmental factors related to wind, visibility, sea condition and weather condition do not significantly cause marine vessels accident.

iii. Marine vessel equipment/machinery failure is not significant causal factor of accident.

HOW TO GET THE FULL PROJECT WORK

 

PLEASE, print the following instructions and information if you will like to order/buy our complete written material(s).

 

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#25000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) immediately we receive bank alert

 

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

 

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 2023350498

Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

As a result of fraud in Nigeria, people don’t believe there are good online businesses in Nigeria.

 

But on this site, we have provided “table of content and chapter one” of all our project topics and materials in order to convince you that we have the complete materials.

 

Secondly, we have provided our Bank Account on this site. Our Bank Account contains all information about the owner of this website. For your own security, all payment should be made in the bank.

 

No Fraudulent company uses Bank Account as a means of payment, because Bank Account contains the overall information of the owner

 

CAUTION/WARNING

Please, DO NOT COPY any of our materials on this website WORD-TO-WORD. These materials are to assist, direct you during your project.  Study the materials carefully and use the information in them to develop your own new copy. Copying these materials word-to-word is CHEATING/ ILLEGAL because it affects Educational standard, and we will not be held responsible for it. If you must copy word-to-word please do not order/buy.

 

That you ordered this material shows you have agreed not to copy word-to-word.

 

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08139462710 or 08137701720

 

YOU CAN ALSO CALL:

08068231953, 08168759420

 

 

Visit any of our project websites below:

www.easyprojectmaterials.com

www.easyprojectmaterials.com.ng

www.easyprojectmaterial.net

www.easyprojectmaterial.net.ng

www.easyprojectsolutions.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.worldofnolimit.com

www.nairaproject.com.ng

www.nairaprojects.com.ng

www.nairaproject.net

www.nairaprojects.net

www.uniproject.com.ng

www.uniprojects.com.ng

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:

7 years ago 0 Comments Short URL