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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS MILITATING AGAINST PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT TELEVISIONS IN THE DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION IN NIGERIA


ABSTRACT

The problems which face both private and government owned television stations have always been a concern to both public and media experts. This work was aimed at providing answers to questions asked while accomplishing the purpose of setting up such media.  This work is divided into five chapters. Chapter one gives the background of the study and frame work upon which research is built. The second chapter centers on literature review. The third chapter concerns the general methodology that guided the research; The fourth chapter covers data presentation, analysis and interpretation. The fifth chapter which is the last devoted to summary of the work, conclusion, reached and recommendations for policy and further research,

In this  work, all the various problems confronting both private and government owned televisions were looked at. Also In the work, survey research method was used because it is suitable to our objective. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to workers of MINAJ Television and NTA at Owerri.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:   INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of the research problem3

1.3     Objectives of the  study

1.4     Significance of the study

1.5     Research question

1.6     Research hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and operational

Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO:   Review of the literature

2.1     Sources  of literature

2.2     The  Theoretical Framework  of the study

2.3     The Review

2.4    Summary of literature review

2.5     CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research population and  sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Results

 

CHAPTER FOUR|: Data Analyses, presentation and Results

4.1     Overview of Analysis,

4.2     Data Analyses and  presentation

4.3     Test of hypotheses and Results

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY

5.1     SUMMARY

5.2     RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE

. FURTHER STUDY

 

 

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       Though both private and government owned television are established for the purposes of dissemination of information to their  guidance, yet they are confronted with some problems.

These problems range  from their ownership to management, which no doubt have affected both polices and operations, finance case studies.

Both of the media houses utilize electronic magnetic waves in reading  divisive audience but by comparative analysis, the factors of ownership and media policy differ them in  terms of styles, objectives, operations etc.

In  this circumstance, comparative analysis of the researcher is based on  case studies of both minaj television Obosi, a private television and that of NTA Channel 12 Owerri a government owned television house.

We  shall look at the history of Television stations in Nigeria and specifically the problems facing the  two.

Television was this introduced by the defunct Western Region Government in 1959, which was then known as Western Nigeria Broadcasting the Federal Government.

At present Nigeria has well over 30 Television stations.  The MINAJ Television was established in 1994 while  NTA Owerri  was established 2003, According to the book mass media purpose, principles and practices  written by BEN AGBO AND NKEM FAB-UKOZOR, say that the coverage of Television is limited to the urban centers which in effect indicate that the audience for television come from the towns.

There is evidence in this paper that television broadcasting in Nigeria was not people-  oriented but a policy toll and propaganda but at present, some fairness, balance can be observed  in some especially the privately owned ones.

 

 

 

 

1.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

Both Government owned and private television  stations are of immense importance to the society minding the roles  which they play accordingly information, education and entertainment.

Taking cognizance of the fact that there is growth of advertising and there is privatization of the broadcast media.

The Television broadcasting are sure to greatly influence the lives of Nigerians positively and  of course negatively,

In this regard, we shall attempt to make comparative analysis on both privately owned and government owned television station, with a focus on problems facing them.

 

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

       It is the objective of this paper to make comparative analysis on the problem facing with private and government owned Television station.

It is also to proffer solutions to such problems

Another objective of this study is also  to determine the historical evolution and development of broadcasting in Nigeria.

 

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

       This study will help us determine the factors  which constitute problems to both private and government television broadcasting stations and also  to know the extent with  which the problems have reached and the  study will also suggest solutions to the problems.

As  a result of the fact that the organization might not  have time and also the resources both manpower and other wise to  research into this topic, this very work would therefore, present a comprehensive and factual information or knowledge of their operations in the state. By acknowledging the  facts put up more efforts to improve or automatically correcting the problems existing in the station

On  the other hand, as a station owned and finance by the government and private, a knowledge of the station’s problems is a step towards solving it.

The public in general  will benefit from  the findings of this research and the solutions if implemented by the management of government and private television station,     their conditions  and level of service will improve and the public  will have cause to enjoy and identify with the  station the more especially students of mass communication will always find this work valuable as it serve as a  reference  materials for them.

1.4 RESEARCH  QUESTIONS

       In  this regard, the research was conducted in two various stations government and private   owned.

The following  were asked during the interview

1)    What are the problems of information dissemination facing MINAJ Television

2)     What  are the problems facing NTA Channel 12 Owerri in the cause of dissemination of information.

3)     What are the distinguishing factors between management of government owned television stations and the private television stations.

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Hi: Government and private television has problems that hamper their dissemination of  information in Nigeria

Ho:       Government and private television do not have problems that hamper their dissemination of information in Nigeria

H2:      Information disseminated through private television station are more objectives than these disseminated through government  owned Television station, owing to nature of finance, and control.

H3:       Private Television studies offer greater opportunities to the political  class for political  campaigns  than the government owned television studio  since the later sects its  clines based on for political interests.

Ho:        Private  Television studies do not offer greater opportunities to the political class for political campaigns than the government owned television studio since the later selects its clients based on for political interests.

H4:       Journalists under private Television studies are more versatile and aggressive than these under the employ of Government owned television  studios.

Ho:       Journalists under private Television studies are not more versatile and aggressive than those under the employ of government owned  television studios.

 

1.6       CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

A comparative analysis conceptual  characterized by systematic examination of  something by analyzing on similarities  and dissimilarities

Operational: systematic examination of the likeness and  dissimilates of the problems of both private and government television stations

B.  MEDIA PREFERENCE

Conceptual: The liking for private Television rather than government owned Television.

Operational:  The level of liking for private television rather than government owned, television by the Nigeria viewing audience respectively.

1.8       ASSUMPTIONS

     That both private and government owned Television have the fundamental role of disseminating information to the public.

That because of  the way and manner the Television stations are established that the ownership and established that the ownership and editorial  policies differ.

That both  private and government owned Televisions are  confronted by problems raging from their different patterns of finance, control and recruitment.

 

1.8       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

     In a study of this nature, many problems are always encountered.

This study is limited to NTA channel 12, Owerri and MINAJ Television stations, Obos;.

Some of my major handicap were financed, Time and energy and other reasons, that make in impossible to cover other television stations finance is a serious constraints  to me. I could not get to certain areas to sample opinions.  Irrespective of all this, I still manage to pick certain individuals from these areas who are living in the state capitals.  This was purportedly done to enable me obtain a balance and a reliable opinions from all the zones in the state.

Besides Time and energy could not allow me the opportunity to visit some of the department in government and private owned Television station at least to get their views and ideas on the research topic.  As a result of lack of time were unable to exhaust my questionnaire from my respondent.

But all said and done, it was not an easy task.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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11 hours ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE EFFECT OF TELEVISION ADVBERTISENENTON THE BUYING HABITOF CONSUMERS (PEAK MILK ADVERT IN PASPECTIVE A CASE STUDY AT ENUGU URBAN DWELLER)

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at given insight into the effects, if any, of television advertisement on the buying habits of consumers.

It is a research survey based on a simple size of 300 of Enugu urban dwellers. Careful empirical studies have uncoverd or shown that advertising actually influence peoples choice and consumption of some goods and services as well as their buying habit especially peak milk in can and sachets.

Furthermore it has found out that advertising brings a lot of pleasures, amusement, education and entertainment and produce change that ultimely affects the likes, achievement development of consumers.

Moreover this study will guide the producers and advertisers to understand the best techniques to reach their prospective consumers. It shows d significance for unique selling app the ealand repetition of television massages. The chapter one of this study unfolds the definition of advertising and effects onthe buying habits of consumers with relation to a perticuler medium/television. This study will reveal viewers attitude or acceptance to it. It will also consider television effectiveness or failure in realizing its set objectives.

Where the aim is not realized, what are the reasons or factor responsible after which findings will be produced to make the study more enough for anybody who may wish to study or carryout related work in future.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                   II

APPROVAL PAGE                                                         III

DEDICATION                                                                IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                   V

ABSTRACT                                                                 VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                            VIII

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION                                                                1

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM                                            6

OBLECTIVE OF STUDY                                          7

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                                    8

RESERCH QUESTIONS                                           10

LIMITATIONS OF STUDIES                                            13

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW                                           15

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY                                                                27

DATA COLLECTION                                                         28

RESERCH DESIGN                                                   29

MEASURING ISTRUMENT                                    31

RESERCH SAMPLE                                        33

DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER  FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS                                            35

RESULT

DISCUSSION                                                    45

CHAPTER  FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY

LETTER TO RESPONDANCE                       48

QUESTIONNAIRE                                           49

REFFERENCE                                                  56

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                       58

 

CHAPTER ONE

BACGROUND OF STUDY

Advertising is defined as a non-personal communication of information usually paid for and it is usually persuasive in nature, about products, service or ideas by identified sponsored through various media.

Advertising is a market tools that serve several functions it identifies and diferenciate them from others. It also communicate information about the products.and induces the trail of the new products by new users and sugest repurchasing by existing users to increase product use.it also build brand reference and loyalty etc.

According to history the advertising began in the early times when most people could not read and write, the nature of advertising changes from time to time since its origination, perhaps as 400B.C, until the invention of printing press in about 1436.since then its role has been significantly altered at laest twice. Once in response to the industrial and and once with the annual of affluent society.

The past world war II era has been marked by growth and television adverts, intense marketing competition and increased attempts to differentiate products through strategies or other techniques.

Naturally, advertising is governed by the strategy, the basic message remains the same whether it is in television process, posters or radio. But each medium calls for differing technique and offers its advantages and opportunities.

With television you can communicate in both sight and sounds usually in bonus of movement. This is what makes the television so powerful in one particular area that of demonstration.

With the coming of commercial television in 1955, we have for the first time III Britain the ability to go right into homes of consumers and demonstrate our products with all the persuasion of door-to door salesmen.

Television as a medium of communication was however not popular in Nigeria before the mid 70s its high cost and was this restricted to the rich. The above situation was changed of the era of oil boom and udoji awards to own a television set at a disposal price.

Today, television as a medium of advertising is now very popular as it is now found in almost every home, even in a remote village, so everybody can now have access to usual communication by watching adverts on television, either in their houses or in their neighbor’s house. This enable the manufacturer that advertise his products to be rest assured that the message will get to the target audience.

The effect of television adverts on the buying habit of the consumers, especially peak milk is the thrust of this project from common sense indicates every product has a competing substitute.

The effect of television adverts on the buying habits of consumers is the paramount importance to this researcher. Hence television is an effective way of bringing message to consumers because of its characteristics way of combing pictures and sound, they trends to see hear and commenced if not wholly but partly towards a particular advert, such that will convince the target audience, the advertises must understood the complexity of human behavior and the variety of effects on behavior.

As advertises become aware of behavioral characetics, they can use those characteristics features to defined new markets and develop advertising campaign for those markets.

Consumers behavior is affected by both internal individual influences include the consumer perception of the world, the world consumers learn and habits they have developed. External individual influences include the consumer family, social structure and culture.

The way this influencing factors integrated within the consumer determine how that consumer will behave it. His reaction towards a particular adverts. The incitation of an instance of modern times advertising, It can be said that adverts or practice of adverts is as old as man. One can assume that the first adverts on earth surface is between the serpents Eve and Adam her husband, because Adam and Eve were first victims of the overwhelming power of advertisement in Europe. The oldest method of advertisement used by the early craft man was town crying and signs.

In addition advertising has helped or has been useful to industries [manufactures] by way of helping them to advertise their products, its features and area of location and sales. They build brand preference and royalty. Television adverts had been used to battle against competitors by introducing distinctive contour design. E.g. peak milk used some slogan such as milk as its peak, rich and creamy, contains 28 vitamins and minerals and “instant full cream powered milk. All these have been used to promoted salves of peak milk and which has made people to prefer peak milk and which has made people to prefer milk to other brands e.g. Three crown and cowbell. The new handy packed sachet peak milk is now in the market selling more than any brand of milk.

In conclusion advertisement must attract attention, stimulate interest, create desire, inspire conviction and influence action. The copywriter and the visualize work as a team to answer the realization of these objective.

1.2STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Their has been controversy for sometime about the effectiveness of television as a medium for advertising. There is this belief that commercials in other communication media like the print and radio will effect the behaviour of people more. In a country like America where advertising on television has attained high heights, there is a belief that most people used the time occupied by commercial breaks to go to countries to do other things, meaning that a large number of consumers may not watch T.V commercials.

Moreover, there is this feeling that because of the abstract communication method sometimes used in television commercials, people find it difficult to understand the message which they convey.

People in certain cases have already formulated attitudes towards certain adverts that can hardly be changed. In such cases that effect of communication or adverts are almost null.

1.3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The research deals on if television adverts actually have some effects on the buying to habit of consumers, especially peak milk and to find out if such aim is being realized through product demonstrated in television advertising.

Now I am dealing with the effect of television adverts. It is pertinent to narrow it down to viewers of television in terms positive and negative responses. The purpose of this study is to find out if television adverts aid in gaining initial `adverts attention aid promotes aid products identification to buy the product or not [peak milk] this research is also geared to towards whether televising advert any effects on the buying habit. That is, to identify what actually motivates the consumers in making a choice.

Example is seen when people prefer peak milk to three crown milk and cowbell milk. This will also look into whether some factors like cultural beliefs, personal opinion and recommendation by other in any way influences person’s urge in making choice.

The viewers [target audience] to the television had have to be contained as well. This study will equally assess the level of penetration of television advertising on people of different age groups as income bracket and sex.

1.4SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

The research will show the need for unique selling appeal and reputation of television messages for a product like peak milk. It will also enable the producers and advertisers of products to understand the best method to reach their prospective consumers and also to know why television advertisement and why it is mostly preferred to other media.

There is a serious competition of different products in the market today. It is as a result of different means of advertising in the country. The advertisers are trying their best to see that their products creates awareness through the best means of advertising.

The consumer on the other hand seem to be confused as to which medium of communication relays the advertisers messages properly and which of media adverts have effects on them.

Therefore, it is necessary to carry out this study to know whether television advertisement really has effects on the buying habit of consumers, advertising people wants adverts made with real human being that are already known that with simple cartoons.

1.5RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In any research, the research is always aiming at a particular direction to purpose. This is why it is necessary that certain question should be used in this study as other things revolve around the questions.

1To what extent does television adverts influence the buying habit of consumers on peak milk?

2Does repetition on adverts create desire on consumers product purchase?

3Are consumers more likely to remember product seen in television advertisement than any other media of a advertisement?

Answer got will enable researcher find out if actually television adverts do consumers in their choice of products.

1.6HYPOTHESIS

HI Television advert have adverse effect on the buying habits of consumers.

Ho Television advert do not effects on the buying habits of consumers.

H2 Repetition of adverts on television do motivates consumers to action .

Ho Repetition of adverts on television do motivate consumers to action.

H3 Consumers remember quite often products seen on television than in any other means of advertisement.

Ho; Consumers do not remember product seen in television adverts often.

1.7CONCEPT IONAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITON

In this section, the researcher has decided to explain some certain terms which the reader might find confusing and also for easy understanding of the project.

ADVERTISING; Act of making something deliberately known to be people through any of the channel mass communication and persuading them for positive action towards that thing.

TELEVISION ADVERTING; All marketing communication about product or services channel to the public though the television usually by an identified sponsor.

BUYING DECISION; The ability of the consume to conclude to the purchase of a particular product.

INFLUNCE; Power to effect somebody’s or peoples character belief or action through example or powerful presentation.

INTERNAL INFULENCE; These are personal needs and motive of the consumers, his perception, the habit he had developed that influence his behavior.

EXTERNAL INFLUENCE; These are the environmental influence the consumer such as family’s social structure and culture.

1.8ASSUMPTIONS

The research study has a residence of Enugu urban as focus, to find out the extent television adverts have affected the consumers of peak milk on their buying habits.

Enugu urban is considered appropriate for the fact that it has more television viewers than anticipated for this study and which will help the researcher in eliciting the desire information. It also has the desired population expected of people and so the researchers are commenced.

1.9LIMITATION

Like most human endeavors, this study is not derived of limitation. Its result can therefore not be very conclusive. The whole truth is that, this is the researcher first attempt of some scientific study is in itself limiting factor.

Inadequate finance has also posed same limitations to the study. The larger the sample, the more efficient will be the result I will get. But due to inadequacy in financial assistance which would have aid the researcher made the sample size to be limited to 300.

Another militating factor was the scarcity of materials for indebted findings.

There was the absence of any previous research on the approved topic. A more detailed work would have been done on this study but t his was not possible because of the study thoroughly and this also have been responsible for any minor flows that occurred in the study. The researcher therefore recommends that more detailed work be done on this study to study achieve a better result.

 

 

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21 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

USING MOBILE PHONES TO IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES: AN ANALYSIS OF EVIDENCE FROM ASIA

Abstract

Despite improvements in educational indicators, such as enrolment, significant challenges remain with regard to the delivery of quality education in developing countries, particularly in rural and remote regions. In the attempt to find viable solutions to these challenges, much hope has been placed in new information and communication technologies (ICTs), mobile phones being one example. This article reviews the evidence of the role of mobile phone-facilitated meaning in contributing to improved educational outcomes in the developing countries of Asia by exploring the results of six mLearning pilot projects that took place in the Philippines, Mongolia, Thailand, India, and Bangladesh. In particular, this article examines the extent to which the use of mobile phones helped to improve educational outcomes in two specific ways: 1) in improving access to education, and 2) in promoting new learning. Analysis of the projects indicates that while there is important evidence of mobile phones facilitating increased access, much less evidence exists as to how mobiles promote new learning.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

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22 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH OTITIS MEDIA INFECTIONS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PARTS OF OHAJI/EGBEMA LGA

MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH OTITIS MEDIA INFECTIONS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN PARTS OF OHAJI/EGBEMA LGA

 

Abstract

Out of a total school population of 3,070 pupils examined for discharging ear due to bacterial etiology, 44 (1.4%) had discharging ear. Forty eight species of bacteria belonging to 5 genera were isolated. These included, Staphylococcus aureus, 16 isolates; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10; escherichia coli, 11; Proteus species, 7; Bacillus sp. 4. The highest prevalence of infection (3.0%) was recorded in central school Akwuke, Awkunanaw. Analysis of the data showed that infection rate was highest among the 6-9 year old age group (61%) and lowest among the 15 years and above age group (5%). Boys recorded a higher prevalence of infection (55%) than girls (45%). However the difference was not statistically significant (x = 2.08, p > 0.01). All the organisms isolated were sensitive to genticin but resistant to other commonly used antibiotics.

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

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35 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING AMONG FEMALE PART-TIME STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF BENIN

ABSTRACT

Cancer of the cervix remains the most common malignant neoplasm of the female genitalia and the second most common cancer in women.. Cervical Cancers screening serves to detect the possibility that a cancer is present. The main objective of the study was to determine the knowledge and acceptability of Cervicals Cancer Screening among Female Part- Time Students in University of Benin. The hypothesis for the study was: there is no relationship between knowledge of cervical cancer and acceptability of cervical cancer screening. Survey research design was used in the study. Simple random sampling was used to select the sample. The sample consisted of 200 Female Part- Time Students in University of Benin. Data was collected using questionnaire. The study findings revealed that slightly above half more than half of (74%) of the respondents were between the age of 20-25 years, 58 (77%) respondents could not remember age of their first sexual intercourse, the majority 168(86%) of respondents have heard of cervical cancer, majority 126 (63%) of respondents heard about cervical cancer from media, hundred and two (51%) participants explained cervical cancer as abnormal lesion on the cervix, sixty four (32%) respondents stated that unprotected sexual intercourse is a risk factor of cervicals cancer, sixty (30%) of respondents stated that abnormal vaginal bleeding is a sign of cervical cancer, 120 (60%) respondents stated that cervical cancer can be detected by cervicals cancer screening, majority 194 (97%) of respondents stated that cervical cancers screening is done in hospital, majority 178 (89%) of respondents had never been screened for cervical cancers, majority 94 (47%) of respondents strongly agreed that cervical cancer screening is important, the majority 144(72%) of the respondents had no intention of going for cervicals cancer screening, majority 80 (40%) of respondents stated that lack of awareness to cervical cancers screening is a major barrier to cervical cancer screening. The study recommends among others that nurses should engage more on giving Information Education and Communication (IEC) at all levels of Health Care Delivery toward cervical cancers screening. Cervical cancers screening center should be made available in university of Benin health center at subsidized amount so that female students can easily access the service.

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

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35 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE EFFECT OF E-MARKETING TOWARDS THE PROFITABILITY OF INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This work discusses the effect of e-marketing towards the profitability of insurance industry in nigeria. A hundred and twenty questionnaires were distributed among employees from selected insurance companies in Nigeria. Interviews and surveys were also conducted.

 

Primary and secondary data will be used in the analysis. Tables and percentages will also be used as the instrument of analysis

 

It will be observed therefore that e-marketing have a strong and significant impact towards the profitability of insurance industry in nigeria

.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

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35 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES FACING EDUCATION AND ITS IMPROVEMENTS

ABSTRACT

This work discusses technology challenges facing education and its improvement. A hundred and twenty questionnaires were distributed among people from selected states in Nigeria. Interviews and surveys were also conducted.

 

Primary and secondary data will be used in the analysis. Tables and percentages will also be used as the instrument of analysis

 

It will be observed therefore that government funding in education technology and technical capacity of the teachers have a strong and significant impact on the improvement of education in Nigeria.

.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

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35 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

PERCEPTION OF STUDENTS ON THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF MATHS ANXIETY AMONG STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Background of the study

Mathematical thinking is important for all members of a modern society as a habit of mind for its use in the work place, business and finance; and for personal decisions making.

Mathematics is fundamental to national prosperity in providing tools for understanding science, engineering technology and economics. It is essential in public decision making and

for participation in the knowledge economy.

Math anxiety is an intense emotional feeling of anxiety that people have about their ability to understand and do mathematics. People who suffer from math anxiety feel that they are incapable of doing activities and classes that involve math. Some math anxious people even have a fear of math; it’s called math phobia. The incidence of math anxiety among tertiary institution students has risen significantly over the last decae. Many students have even chosen their tertiary institution major in the basis of how little math is required for the degree.

Student’s gender is significant factor for math Anxiety. The study of math anxiety shows, there are gender differences in math anxiety among younger students, though it appears that during the elementary and junior tertiary institution years, boys express slightly more positive affect about math than do girls (Aiken 1970) [4]. During the tertiary institution and tertiary institution years Female students report more anxiety about math than do male students (Betz, 1978) [7] Numerous studies have shown that male achievement in math is higher. Due to the fact that gender differences do not appear until around puberty. Boys and girls have similar mathematics and science proficiency scores on tests at the age of 9, but a gap begins to appear at around age 13, early findings showed that children (boys and girl) did not differ in their math performance during elementary school but that differences began to appear in middle school and increased with time and schooling (Fennema& Sherman 1978) [16] Moreover, mathematics is often labeled as a masculine ability as a result, girls often have low confidence in their math capabilities. These gender stereotypes can reinforce low confidence in girls and can cause math anxiety. However, a note of cautious has to be added while describing gender as a major variable effecting math anxiety. For example, Gierl and Bisanz (1995) [17] finds no significant gender difference for math anxiety, on the other had Campbell and  Evans (1997)  [9] finds  that  females  exhibit more  mathematics  anxiety  in tertiary institution and in tertiary institution.

(Fennema and Sherman, 1978) [16]. Females display more math anxiety than males in tertiary institution and tertiary institution. (woodand T. 2004) [24].

 

Statement of the problem

Parents have the most influence on adolescent course-taking and career choices, with the mother being the  most influential of all this was the finding in a 2001 report in the social psychology of education. Parental encouragement in math has been found to significantly influence student’s learning experiences and attitude towards math. Infact, student’s grades in math were higher when students perceived that their parents were encouraging their effort in math. Dave and Dave (1971) [12] investigated the relationship of parental education on caste with the academic achievement. They found that higher percentages of rank holder belong to homes with higher parental education where as a higher percentages of failed students belong to those who have lower parental education. Bridge et al (1979), and Glasman and Biniaminov (1981) [8, 18] concluded that the achievement level of a student in math is directly proportional to the level of his parent’s education.

 

Objectives

1.      To  compare  the  mathematics  anxiety  of  secondary

school students on gender basis.

2.      To   study   the   influence   of   parental   education   on mathematics anxiety of students.

 

Hypotheses

1.      There  is  no  significant  difference  in  the  mathematics

anxiety of male and female students.

2.      There is no significant difference among the different categories of parent education and mathematics anxiety of students.

 

 

 

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35 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

A SURVEY OF RADIATION PROTECTION AWARENESS IN NON RADIATION WORKERS

Abstract
Introduction: Ionizing radiations are the hazardous agents in the workplace and all forms of ionizing radiation produce some type of injuries. Awareness of application of protection guidelines and knowledge of the principles of radiation protection can play an important role in health of employees. Survey of radiation employee’s levels of awareness and practical behavior is essential and should be standardized. Methods: The hospitals were visited to determine the number of radiation employees and to select the samples. Data was collected by questionnaire and analyses were performed by EPI6 software. Results: The employee’s awareness about protection in the radiation room was 70%, about application of film badge was more than 85%. The employee’s awareness of periodic inspection of atomic energy organization expert was 54% and their knowledge of long term and short term radiation effects were 98% and 95%, respectively. There was a meaningful relation concerning the level of education and awareness of the employees about MPD or principles of radiation protection (P<0.0007 and P<0.003 respectively). Conclusion: Our results reveal that the employees have acceptable knowledge about the use of film badges, however, they lack enough awareness concerning other issues of radiation protection. Proper and periodic educational courses for radiation workers are mandatory.

 

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35 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

ROLE OF INSURANCE COMPANIES IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In a subsistence economy where man produces all what he consumes, it is possible to go without the generally accepted pattern of exchange relationship. In these subsistence situations, production is theoretically equal to income or savings equal to investment. As man’s needs and wants expanded, there comes the need of satisfy those wants which people had, but they were unable themselves to produce. This is done through exchange relationship known as BARTER.
A financial system is a conglomerate of various institutions, markets, instruments and operators that interact within an economy to provide financial services, such services may include resources mobilization and allocation, financial intermediaries and facilitation of foreign exchange transaction tom enhance international trade among others.
The role of financial institution in the system is that they are intermediaries of channeling funds from those who wish to save to those wishing to borrow. The development of financial system is closely related to the economy within which it operates.

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Despite the establishment of Nigeria social Insurance Trust Fund (NSITF) and NICON, many employees of the private sector are yet to benefit from its operations.
Many are ignorant of the scheme existence, few employees who knew about the scheme’s existence and the role it suppose to play in providing social security to them have met with disappointment because  of the stringent measure adopted by the Nigeria Social Insurance Trust Fund (NSITF) and NICON in paying out claims to beneficiaries.
It is this problem that will motivate me to carry out this research in order to see how these problems can be solved so that every employees of the private sector who have contributed must have benefited from this scheme and the level of poverty be reduced and the economy will improve.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research work will have the following objectives:

  1. To find out the contribution of insurance companies in the development of Nigeria economy.
  2. To guide future researchers on this topic.
  3. To help the Insurance companies in its operations.
  4. To make recommendation when necessary on the efficient and effective operation of the scheme (NSITF, NICON).
  5. To find out the problems of non-banking, financial institution with regards to their policies, with a view to recommend solutions.
  6. To create awareness to some other employees or public about the existence and importance of pension fund as a sources of social security.

1.4    STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The research work tends to test the following hypotheses listed below
HO:    Insurance companies have no significant effect on the nation’s economic growth and development.
H1:     Insurance companies have significant effect on the nation’s economic growth and development.
1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that at the end of this study the following benefits could be achieved. It will benefit the millions of Nigerians who engaged in Insurance policies, it will also help in educating the incurred on the importance the insurance companies and how to insured their valuable items with the insurer. The essay is therefore, aimed as assessing the insurance as a non-monetary financial institution plays a role in the economic development of this country Nigeria.

1.6    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research work will be limited to the non-banking institution with reference to pension funds and insurance companies. The reasons why this research work will cover non-banking financial institution, is that, their sources of funds, mode of operation, investment policies and beneficiaries differ from that of banking i.e. financial institution for examples commercial banks, development banks, and merchant banks.
As other areas of study, the researcher is faced with many problems in the cause of collecting data of the research. Hence, the problem are discussed below:

  1. Inability to obtain all the needed data from the Nigerian Social Insurance Trust Fund (NSITF) and National Insurance Corporation of Nigeria (NICON) i.e. the case study. This is because they consider given the information as exposure of secret.
  2. The constraint of time with in which the study has to be completed, thus, makes it difficult for the researcher to elaborate extensively on this research work. Because time delay in processing the data, the researcher is expected to write and forward his request formally, and before this data can be release, it has to be endorsed by many officer such endorsement will take a longer period of time, why because not all officer can be on sit.
  3. Another problem is the attitude of the respondent, some respondents were reluctant to interview while other may not return the question sent to them.
  4. Inadequate fund is another major constraint which will hinder the research is collecting data. For example transportation, cost of printing questionnaire, etc.

1.7    HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY
The Nigerian Social Insurance Trust Fund was established in 1994 the Scheme replaced the defunct National Provident Fund (NPF) and NICON, the Nigeria Social Insurance Trust Fund was established by the Federal Government of Nigeria for the protection of workers in the private sector of the economy against the loss of employment, income as a result of old age invalidity or death.
The Scheme was established by Decree No. 13 of 1993 and it is mandatory for employers in the private sector. Failure to abide by the provision of the Decree is considered a criminal offence and it may tend to legal prosecution of offending organisation. The Board of the NSITF is no doubt the functional type and it is dominated by ex-parts and professional. The Board is headed by a Chairman appointment by the government and other members. The organisation consists of twenty-five (25) management staff, four (4) Executive Directors (MD).

This organisation is divided into four (4) Departments:
Administration and Finance Department
Investment Department
Treasury Department
Data and Training Department

The organisation is divided into zonal, state and district offices in order to decentralized operational levels aimed at de-bureaucratization of the organisation.
The National Insurance Corporation of Nigeria (NICON) was established in 1969. the NICON was accepted by the Federal Government of Nigeria of Dr. Reichel’s recommendations, the government promulgated Decree 22 of 1969 called the NICON, Decree which gave birth to the National Insurance Corporation of Nigeria (NICON).
The NICON Insurance Plc founded on 1st July 1969 that gave birth to the NICON, in effect, some of the landmark events which finally directly led to the formation of NICON were Mr. Oke’s letter of 1967, Honourable Obande Committee of 1964, Justice Adefarasin Commission of Inquiry of 1966 and Mr. Ani Working Party of 1966.
The NICON Insurance Plc has grown into the biggest, most outstanding and most reliable Insurance company in the country and possibly on the African continent, with a reputation based on service and performance. The insurance giant handles all classes of insurance; worthy of note are specialized areas as aviation, oil and marine and the special products such as the police welfare scheme and the NICON-NERFUND Scheme which provides a strong backing for the Nigerian industrialists.
This NICON has the following management hierarchy, Chairman, managing Director and three (3) executive Director, Administration and Finance Department, Special Risk Department, Technical Executive and assistant Managing Directors.

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

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