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THE IMPACT OF SEGMENTATION ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION (A CASE STUDY OF NBC PLC IN ENUGU METROPOLIS)

ABSTRACT

Basically, NBC offers different product to customers which in one way or the other leads to the satisfaction of the desires of the customers.

Some objectives of this study are;

·                    To find out the role of segmentation in the marketing of NBC Plc products.

·                    To find out if market segmentation of NBC Plc leads to increase customers patronage.

Based on the above objectives, the researchers used primary and secondary data.  Secondary data are collected from already done work like textbooks, dictionary, magazine etc. the sample size for the consumer was derives using borhey’s  formular while census was used for relevant staff and wanyement.

The data collected when analyzed using tables, frequencies and percentages.  The analyzed data gave the following finding that market segmentation practice of NBC Plc leads to increased patronage of their products.

Market segmentation practice of NBC Plc leads to increase in profit of the organization.

The researchers came up with the following recommendations.

·                    NBC should stick to segmentation of their products because it increase their profit.

·                    NBC PLc is advised to practice marketing segmentation because it reduces cost of operations.

The researcher concludes that market segmentation not only help in serving the customers better but also increase the profit of the organization.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE       -        -        -        -        -        -        I

APPROVAL PAGE       -        -        -        -        -        II

DEDICATION     -        -        -        -        -        -        III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       -        -        -        -        IV

ABSTRACT        -        -        -        -        -        -        V

TABLE OF CONTENTS        -        -        -        -        -        VI

CHAPTER ONE

1.1            Background of the study

1.2            Statement of the problem

1.3            Objectives of the study

1.4            Formulation of hypotheses

1.5            Significance of the study

1.6            Scope of the study

1.7            Limitation of the study

1.8            Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.1            An overviews of segmentation

2.2            Objectives of market segmentation

2.3            Segmentation criteria

2.4            Conditions for effective market segmentation

2.5            Evaluation of market segmentation

2.6            Impact of segmentation on customers satisfaction

2.7            Segmentation in NBC plc

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research methodology

3.1            Sources of data

3.2            Research instruments used

3.3            Population of the study

3.4            Sampling techniques

3.5            Determination of sample size

3.6            Method of questionnaire administration or distribution

3.7            Limitation of the study

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

4.1            Presentation and analysis of data

4.2            Test of hypotheses

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion

5.1            Summary of findings

5.2            Recommendations

5.3            Conclusion

Bibliography

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In this modern and dynamic world, marketers look at the overall market as a body consisting of many smaller parts whose elements have some common characteristics.

They are mostly district from the entire market.  For marketers entering a market, the total market must be divided into segment or division being similar character of wants and need or behaviours. This therefore, results to designing its own program, which will be developed for its best satisfaction.

Adirika, Ebuen Nnohu (1997:40) noted that most marketers are two large for an organization market.

According to Edoga and Ani (200:18) market segmentation is defined as the process of dividing the total market into several relatively homogenous groups with similar product interest.  This process according to them requires marketers to identify factors that effect purchasing decision so that consumer can be grouped accordingly.

Adirika, Ebue and Nnohm (1997:30) sees marketing segmentation as the subdividing of a heterogeneous market into homogenous subset, groups of customers so that each  subset can conceivably be selected as a separate market target to be reach with a district marketing mix.  They further noted that in practicing segmentation and consequently target marketing, organization endeavour to serve target markets that they are able to satisfy efficiently and effectively, and not just any group of buyers that seems to represent a sizeable market.

These includes the marketing of drinks.

Adirika (1992,2.9) believes that the battles for the heart, mind and pocket book of the customers will be won by a block by block store by purchase, by purchases bases.  This strategy is based on the premise that customers have different test which change over time and that these customers and variety

 

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129 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

AN IMPACT OF ACCESSIBILITY ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY VALUE

Abstract

This work is on an impact of accessibility on commercial property value. A number of factors determine commercial property values with road network being one of them . This study was carried out to determine the contributions of arterial road network to variability in commercial property values in lkeja, Nigeria, in the presence or absence of other value determinants. In attaining the aim , road network was decomposed into its explanatory variables and regression models set at 0.05 alpha level used to determine their individual and joint impacts with other factors on commercial property values. It was found that accessibility has a P-value of 0.0024; demand, P-value = 0.0011; and supply returned P-value of 0.0059; all have significant impact on commercial property values. Also, the Analysis of Variance indicates that F-ratio = 3.88, P-value = 0.0193, with R2 of 69.37% explaining 69% variability in commercial property value. However, further analysis using Backward Selection Method of Stepwise Regression Model indicated that location in addition to demand, supply, and accessibility have significant impacts on commercial property values in the study area. It recommended that road network be improved to enhance values of commercial properties in the study area to the benefit of Government through enhanced property tax; to property owners through improved rental values; and occupiers of commercial properties through better neighbourhood quality.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

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138 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

INFLUENCE OF GENDER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ANKPA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KOGI STATE

ABSTRACT

This work discusses influence of gender on the performance of students of agricultural science in public secondary schools in ankpa local government area of kogi state. A hundred and twenty questionnaires were distributed among students and teachers from selected secondary schools in ankpa local government area of kogi state. Interviews and surveys were also conducted.

 

Primary and secondary data will be used in the analysis. Tables and percentages will also be used as the instrument of analysis

 

It will be observed therefore that gender have a strong and significant impact on the performance of students of agricultural science in public secondary schools

.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem

1.3     Objectives of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypothesis

1.7     Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8     Assumptions

1.9     Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Literature

2.2     The Review

2.3     Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Method

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research Sample

3.4     Measuring Instrument

3.5     Data Collection

3.6     Data Analysis

3.7     Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Results

4.3     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

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152 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

EVALUATING THE PROBLEMS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA CITIES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Solid wastes comprise all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted. Also included are by- products of process lines or materials that may be required by law to be disposed of (Okecha 2000). Solid waste can be classified in a number of ways, on the basis of sources, environmental risks, utility and physical property. On the basis of source, solid wastes are again classified as: Municipal Solid Wastes, Industrial Solid Wastes and Agricultural Solid Wastes. Nigeria’s major urban centres are today fighting to clear mounting heaps of solid waste from their environments. These strategic centres of beauty, peace and security are being overtaken by the messy nature of over flowing dumps unattended heaps of solid wastes emanating from household or domestic or kitchen sources, markets, shopping and business centres. City officials appear unable to combat unlawful and haphazard dumping of hazardous commercial and industrial wastes which are a clear violation of the clean Air and Health Edicts in our environmental sanitation laws, rules and regulation.

 

Refuse generation and its likely effects on the health, quality of environment and the urban landscape have become burning national issues in Nigeria today. All stakeholders concern with the safety and the beautification of our environment have come to realize the negative consequences of uncleared solid human wastes

 

found in residential neighbourhoods, markets, schools, and central business districts in our cities. These solid wastes have become recurring features in our urban environment. It is no longer in doubt that Nigerian cities are inundated with the challenges of uncleared solid wastes. As a result, urban residents are often confronted with the hazardous impact to their collective health and safety.

 

A United Nations Report (August 2004) noted with regret that while developing countries are improving access to clean drinking water they are falling behind on sanitation goals. At one of its summit in 2000 (Uwaegbelun 2004) revealed that The World Health Organization-(WHO 2004) and United Nations International Children Education Fund- (UNICEF 2004) joint report in August 2004 that: “about 2.4 billion people will likely face the risk of needless disease and death by the target of 2015 because of bad sanitation”. The report also noted that bad sanitation – decaying or non-existent sewage system and toilets- fuels the spread of diseases like cholera and basic illness like diarrhea, which kills a child every 21 seconds.

 

The hardest hit by bad sanitation is rural poor and residents of slum areas in fast-growing cities, mostly in Africa and Asia. In 1992, the “Earth Summit” succeeded in alerting the conscience of the world to the urgency of achieving environmentally sustainable development. The Summit asserted that if we know enough to act today, then we must also find answers to many tough conceptual and technical questions that have remained unsolved over time. It affirms that rapid urbanization in developing world if ignored can be a threat to health, the environment and urban productivity.

 

Cities are the engines of economic growth, but the environmental implications of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems facing developing countries and their cities are the health impact of urban pollution that are derived from inadequate water services, poor urban and industrial waste management, as well as air pollution, especially from particulates which constitutes part of solid waste.

 

Among the pressing environmental and public health issues in Nigeria today is the problem of solid waste generation and disposal. The problem of solid waste management is a historical one because man’s existence is inextricably linked to the generation of waste. The problem is becoming intractable as many cities in developing countries cannot keep pace with urbanization, pollution, and the increasingly concomitant generation of garbage due to changing life styles and consumption patterns.

 

The mountainous heaps of solid wastes that deface Nigerian cities and the continuous discharge of industrial contaminants into streams and rivers without treatment motivated the federal government of Nigeria to promulgate Decree 58 for the establishment of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) on 30 December 1988 (Federal Military Government 1988).

 

A national policy on the environment was formed and the goals of the policy include: to secure for all Nigerians a quality of environment adequate for their health and well being; to raise public awareness and promote understanding of the essential linkages between the environment and development; and to encourage individual and community participation in environmental protection and improvement efforts (FEPA 1989). As regards the solid waste sector, the specific actions desired include collection and disposal of solid waste in an environmentally safe manner; setting up and enforcement of laws, regulations, and standards; encouragement of public participation; environment monitoring and imposition of penalties on defaulters to encourage compliance (FEPA 1989; FRN 1991).

 

In spite of the formulation of FEPA and a national environmental policy, the environment has not been adequately protected. Interest is mainly on aesthetics, which is rarely achieved (Agunwanba 1998). Wastes collection is irregular and restricted to the major cities. Improperly sited open dumps deface several cities, thereby endangering public health by encouraging the spread of odors and diseases, uncontrolled recycling of contaminated goods and pollution of water sources (Adegoke 1989, Singh 1998).

 

Sadly, there seems a resignation to the unremitting solid wastes build up by the relevant authorities, where such bodies exist at all. However, in reactions to the inescapable environmental impact of delay in solid wastes removal, the federal government for example, introduced the monthly environmental sanitation in the early seventies. There from the States and Local Governments were expected to take a cue and evolve their own solid wastes management (SWM) strategies based on the peculiarities of their environment.

 

Each state had in the process of mitigating urban solid wastes, set up Wastes Management Boards (WMB) in attempts to tackle the occurrence of wastes and their hazards to society as a whole. While the unhealthy aspects of abandoned solid wastes can be contained, the more avoidable features of blocked drains, traffic impedance and floods have yet to be fully tackled.

 

One resonant feature common in the wastes build-up and emanating environmental degradation scenarios is the high cost or capital intensive nature of its amelioration as well as tackling the solid wastes menace. It requires a lot of financial and human capital to minimize and attempt to eradicate the adverse effects of exposed and untreated solid wastes in our urban centres.

 

It is expected that government would in due course arrive at the means to combat solid wastes and reduce their negative impact on area residents and the perception of our cities as being dirty, chaotic, and full of traces of rotting or fermenting garbage that emit odours harmful to the human body. Obviously, the timely removal of accumulated solid wastes require much more than our governments at all levels are presently engaged in. Further plans, policies and programs would need to be put on a more permanent basis in order to combat the dastardly effects of environmental degradation. Understandably, it would require effective mobilization of resources such as involving all stakeholders in regular counter measure to suppress uncontrolled solid wastes generation and irregular disposal outside city confines altogether.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

As a result of increased urbanization and infrequent environmental sanitation exercises, urban residents dump solid wastes carelessly or haphazardly – anywhere they deem fit. Such controversial tendencies and attributes would seem incomprehensible; if we desire to live in beauteous environments. Some of the lagoon front in the country has been turned into a dump for human and all sorts of solid waste. Trucks fully loaded with feces queue up in large numbers to discharge the contents into the lagoon (Njoku 2006). Environmental experts are of the view that the implication of this practice is very grave. The failure of relevant agencies to stem the tide of reckless waste dumping and littering of Nigerian cities’ infrastructure (streets and roads) and surrounding bushes indicate a clear pattern of non-enforcement or non-implementation of existing environmental sanitation laws.

 

Irregular and unplanned dumping of solid wastes, especially at night, which are often in gross violation of relevant rules and regulations continue to hinder plan preparations and effective land use delineation which were expected to usher in a beautiful, clean and orderly environment. Consequently, there remains a huge gap between policy formulation, execution and implementation which exacerbate the problem of solid waste management in Nigerian cities which necessitate the need to evaluate the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria by the researcher.

 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 

The following are the objective of this study:

 

1.  To evaluate the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria.

 

2.  To examine the consequences of poor solid waste management in Nigeria.

 

3.  To identify the strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria.

 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

1.  What are the problems of solid waste management in Nigeria?

 

2.  What are the consequences of poor solid waste management in Nigeria?

 

3.  What are the strategies than has been adopted in solid waste management in Nigeria?

 

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

 

HO: Solid waste management has not been effective in Nigeria.

 

HA: Solid waste management has been effective in Nigeria.

 

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

The following are the significance of this study:

 

1.  This study will educate the general public, stakeholders in environmental management, students, government and policy makers on the problems of solid waste management focusing on Nigeria with a view of identifying management strategies to combat the menace associated with poor solid waste management.

 

2.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

 

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

 

This study on the evaluation of problems of solid waste management in Nigeria will cover all issues related to solid waste management system in Nigeria. It will cover the attitude of Nigerians to solid waste management, policies and regulatory framework.

 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

 

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

 

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

 

1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

Solid waste: means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations

 

Pollution: the presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.

 

Environment: the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.

 

Management: the process of dealing with or controlling things or people.

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OR

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Bank: UBA.

 

HOW TO IDENTIFY SCAM/FRAUD

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153 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CORROBORATION UNDER THE NIGERIAN LAW OF EVIDENCE

 

ABSTRACT

There is no law that says the plaintiff or the prosecution must bring a million witnesses or evidence to court before he can succeed in his case. A court can convict on a single witness. A case is not decided by the numbers of witnesses, single credible convincing evidence is enough to convict in a case but there are some exceptions. The exceptions refer to by this learned mean the circumstances where corroboration will be required before any judge can decide his case. Although a judge can convict upon the uncorroborated evidence of an accomplice but he must warn himself before given such conviction in fact he is advised to seek corroborating evidence before convicting an accused because failure to do so can lead to the setting aside of his judgment on appeal.Generally, corroboration cuts a niche for itself, it is used both in criminal and civil cases. It will also state the position of judges on the issue of corroboration and various decisions of court on different issues arising from corroboration. In law, corroboration, though popular yet controversial virtually under all legal system this is due to the influence and interpretation of the provisions of the Evidence Act and the criminal and penal codes (on corroboration of evidence) by judges. The desirability of corroboration as a requirement in certain criminal and civil cases under the Nigerian law of evidence and the hope of examine it critically under our legal system is the core focus of this study. This work will therefore elucidate the meaning of corroboration in Nigeria and Canada generally, the role of judges in deciding both civil and criminal cases and various statutory provisions in respect of corroboration of evidence in Nigeria relying largely on both primary and secondary source of law of evidence in Nigeria.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0.0: INTRODUCTION

1.1.0: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.2.0: OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

1.3.0: FOCUS OF STUDY

1.4.0: SCOPE OF STUDY

1.5.0: METHODOLOGY

1.6.0: LITERATURE REVIEW

1.7.0: CONCLUSION

CHAPTER TWO

PRINCIPLE OF CORROBORATION

2.0.0: INTRODUCTION

2.1.0: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CORROBORATION IN NIGERIA.

2.2.0: MEANING / DEFINITION OF CORROBORATION

2.3.0: NATURE OF CORROBORATION

2.4.0  EVIDENCE REQUIRING CORROBORATION

2.5.0 CONCLUSION

 

CHAPTER THREE

RULES/ FORMS OF CORROBORATION.

3.0.0: INTRODUCTION.

3.1.0: FORMS OF CORROBORATION

3.1.1.0: CORROBORATION AS A MATTER OF LAW.

3.1.1.1 CORROBORATION AS A MATTER OF PRACTISE.V

3.2.1.1: CUMMULATIVE CORROBORATION

3.2.1.2: IDENTIFICATION CASES AND CORROBORATION

3.3.0: CORROBORATION UNDER THE COMMON LAW

3.4.0: CONCLUSION

CHAPTER FOUR

INCIDENCES OF CORROBORATION

4.0.0: INTRODUCTION

4.1.0: CORROBORATION IN CIVIL CASES

4.2.0: CORROBORATION IN CRIMINAL CASES

4.3.0: ROLE OF JUDGES AND JURY IN CORROBORATION

4.4.0: PROBLEMS OF CORROBORATION

4.5.0: SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM

4.6.0 CONCLUSION

 

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0.0: CONCLUSION

5.1.0 RECOMMENDATION

BIBILOGRAPHY

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160 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING PHYSICS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The attitude towards physics in secondary schools in Nigeria is unsatisfactory sequel to the wrong perception that the subject is difficult to assimilate, inspite of the benefit student stand to gain by learning physics most student nonchalantly chose to study other subjects in place of physic (Okoh, 2002).

 

Students attitude towards physics to a large extent have an impact on their interest in leaning physics. As such Cupdag(1989) opined that the attitude of students reveals their level of learning toward a particular subject, thus, makes them enthusiastic to learn than those who have unfavorable

 

attitude towards its.

 

In this regard, Cheng (2004), in a study conducted regarding students learning in physics, found out that in the students evaluation, consistent with their notion that physics is complex to learn have unfavorable attitude towards learning it. This also have a negative consequence on teaching the subject, because the negative perception of students becomes a barrier to teaching and learning.

 

Furthermore, Edward (2006) asserts that research in a similar area which was targeted at assessing students’ beliefs and perception about the nature of physics learning and evaluation of teaching practices that would help students develop more expert-like beliefs and positive attitude; observed that inspite of the benefit the student would derive from learning physics their perception about physics being a difficult subject cannot be easily changed thus affecting the teaching and learning of the subject in secondary schools in Nigeria.

 

However, Torres (1997) opined that in present time, the emphasis on science teaching has shifted from teaching of science as a body of established knowledge towards science as a human activity. Instead of teaching students to think critically and independently; science teaching to a large extent, has taught students to accept scientific knowledge without questions, learn existing theories and present alternative explanations.

 

As such, physics as a dynamic branch of science is difficult to describe, thus, in learning physics, this should not be taught as a series of formulas to be memorized and applied just for “cultural” purposes but be taught as a dynamic branch of science which should provide questions and explanations on how the world works (Jense, 1995).

 

It is against this background that the researchers sees the subject matter of this research “problem and prospect of teaching and learning physics in secondary school level” as an issue worthy of investigation.

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

A lot of studies shows the poor performance of students in physics this is attributed to the notion that physics is complex to learn thus making students to develop an unfavorable altitude towards learning the subject. On the part of teachers, physics is taught as a series of formulas to be memorized and applied just for the sake of learning as against teaching students to think critically and independently instead of accepting such knowledge without questions. This issue has become a serious concern to education planners and policy makers in Nigeria. As such the subject matter of this research is considered an empirical problem worthy of investigation.

 

1.3   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

The present study is to determine the problem and prospect of teaching and learning physics in secondary school level, with a searchlight at federal government college Malali Kaduna, Kaduna state.

 

1.4   THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 

1.  To find out the prospect of teaching and learning of physics in secondary school level

 

2.  To examine the attitude and performance in physics among secondary school students

 

3.  To determine the theories of learning that are applicable in teaching physics in secondary schools

 

4.  To identify the problems militating against teaching and learning physics in secondary schools

 

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

1.  What are the prospect of teaching and learning of physics in secondary school level?

 

2.  What is the attitude of secondary school students in physics and how do they perform in the subject?

 

3.  What kind of theories of learning are applicable in teaching and learning of physics in secondary schools?

 

1.6   STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

 

1.     Ho: There is a negative attitude towards learning physics and poor performance in physics in secondary school

 

2.     H1: There is no negative attitude towards learning physics and poor performance in physics in secondary school

 

1.7   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

The study will be beneficial to physics teachers in secondary schools who may wish to utilize the findings of this study to improve their teaching method. The study will also be beneficial to policy makers in education sector especially as they utilize the findings of this study as a basis for policy formulation concerning teaching and learning of physics. It should be noted that the study will enhance existing knowledge about the problem and prospect of teaching and learning physics in secondary school level. The study can also be used as a springboard to carryout similar research as incoming students can use it as a reference material.

 

1.8   ASSUMPTION AND PROBLEMS

The assumptions of the study are that students perceive physics as a complex subject to learn and thus show negative attitude towards learning it, which in turn affect their performance.

 

Secondly, poor teaching method and the traditional method of teaching physics  as  a subject to be memorized against proper assimilation and teaching students to think critically and independently rather than accepting knowledge without questioning.

 

1.9   SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 

The study will cover an empirical examination of the problem and prospect of teaching and learning physics in secondary school level, as well as the examination of the attitude of students and their performance in physics. The study will equally cover the examination of the theories of learning that are applicable in teaching physics in secondary schools, as well as the problems militating against teaching and learning of physics in secondary schools. Empirical data is collected only from federal government college Kaduna, the time frame for this study covers a period of five years (2006-2011).

 

The study is constraint from a problems arising from the inability of the research to employ numerous research designs as well as instrument to obtain research data as such it is not certain if the finding obtained will be the same if other instrument as well as research designs were used. The nonchallant   attitude of some respondents also affected the validity of the findings. Other limitations include the inability of the research to combined academic work with the research work as ell as inadequate literatures on the subject matter. Inadequate fund need to undertake this study also constitute a great limitation to this study.

 

1.10     OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

Teaching physics: The ability to impact knowledge in physics to students

 

Learning physics: The ability to assimilate physics lessons by students

 

Attitude: The way students feel and behave towards learning of physics

 

Perception: The way student think about physics

 

Performance: How well or badly students learn physics in secondary school

 

Prospects: The success recorded in teaching and learning of physics in secondary schools

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161 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE EFFECTS OF MOTHER TONGUE INTERFERENCE IN THE STUDY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effect of mother tongue on English language in some selected secondary schools in Ikwere Local Government. The effect of mother tongue of the study includes students in some secondary schools in Ikwere. However a total of four secondary schools were selected, the students were drawn from each of the classes making a total of 100 students which constitute my sample size. The research instrument used includes questionnaire, interview and participant observation. The data collected was analyzed using the sample percentages calculation; however all of them were finding.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

Introduction

 

Background of the study

 

Statement of problem

 

Purpose of the study

 

Significance of the study

 

Research question

 

Scope of the study

 

Limitation of the study

 

Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

Literature review

 

The role of mother tongue on English language

 

The place of mother tongue on English language

 

Problems of teaching mother tongue

 

Solutions to the problem

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

Methodology

 

Population

 

Sampling

 

Data collection techniques

 

Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

Presentation of result and data analysis

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

Summary

 

Conclusion

 

Recommendation

 

REFERENCES

 

QUESTIONNAIRE

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

English language is not an indigenous language to Nigeria, due to the fact, that Nigerians already have their own spoken language (mother tongue). Every Nigeria learning English language is usually faced with a complex language situation in his process language development.

 

Besides having to master his own language and other indigenous language, he needs to have a good command of English as indispensable tool in his daily life in a changing world. Language is our greatest invention, without it, trade, government, family life. Regions and the art would be either impossible or very different.

 

The human being is characterized by the ability to communicate with his fellow human being, this chief characteristics is what distinguished the human from animals. The process of learning indigenous language begin very early in life, right from time early, an adult attempt to communicate with a child by using all kinds of sound to him and the child in turn begin to respond to the communication through imitation.

 

The child proficiency in use of his mother tongue is accelerated by his constant exposure to language. This communication is made possible in human being by the use of two types of sensory stimulation, such as auditory and visual.

 

Any normal human being with the normal human facilities possesses this type of sensory stimulation is being used.

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

This research is designed to find and analyze the influence of mother tongue on the learning of English Language as a foreign language it is therefore an attempt to bring together in an accessible from where the mother tongue can give the needed wrap to English used by Nigerian’s, particularly those students in Ozolua Model Secondary School, Iguobazuwa. No praise can be too high for the devoted inspectorates who wrestle continuously with this problem, which is made almost impossibly difficult by the vast distance involved.

 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

Our main concern here is to show how English Language is affected either positively or negatively by the learner mother tongue.

 

Secondly to acquire sufficient diversified register of English vocabulary in various field of human endeavour which will enhance the overall quality of communicative competence of the learning second language.

 

Thirdly to see of the conditions which language acquisition can take place. Finally to bring the conditions of language learning closer to the condition of language acquisition and to male language learning a far rewarding experience than is commonly the case.

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

The importance of the mother tongue in the education of a child cannot be overemphasized. Psychologically; the proper development of the child is closely boring with the continued use of the language he has spoken from birth, the language of his parents, brothers and sisters, friends and people he is use to. It is the language in which he has acquired in his first experience in life, dreams and think, and in his feeling and emotions.

 

It is a paramount fact that a child education should begin with his mother tongue since it is the language of his culture, of all the elements that characterize a linguistic group and distinguishes them from other group’s  whether in art, music, dance, attitude and beliefs, customs, festivals, behaviour etc.

 

This does not create a barrier between him and his less educated parents but, what is worse, it may cause him to despise the language of his people in favour of a foreign one.

 

It is not agreed on, however that the factors are essentially the same.

 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

The research on this work has a limited scope it will be to some villages in Ovia South West Local Government Area. It is solely based on the influence of mother tongue on the learning of English as a foreign language and its impact on the rural people, possible

 

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

The research questions would focus on the following;

 

Does the environment of the child affect the performance of pupils in English language?

Does the economic status of the parents of the child affect the performance of pupils in English language?

Does mother tongue affect the performance of a child in English language?

Is there any relationship between the occupation of parents and the performance of their children in English language?

Does the health of the child affect the performance of pupils in English language?

 

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Mother tongue: Native, language, the first which is normally acquired by human being in early childhood through interaction with other member of his own native speakers. This can also be called primary language, its one’s first language of interaction.

 

Second language: Foreign language, any language other than the native language or mother tongue. A second language usually learnt and not acquired through interaction with other.

 

Interference: The errors native made by carrying over the speech habit of the native language or dialect into a second language or dialect. The interference can be noticed in features of pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary when a person is learning to master the pattern of second language.

 

Transfer: The process or result of carrying over speech habit from one language to another e.g. language teaching, the patterns of the mother tongue or when translating lexical items may be borrowed from the native language. Negative features that are not available in the mother tongue are to features that are present in the second language. This means that there are some distinctive features inherent in the mother tongues that are transferred to the second language.

 

Positive common features: Are those features that are present both in first language and the second language.

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161 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

CHALLENGES OF EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING AMONG WORKING CLASS WOMEN

ABSTRACT

This work discusses challenges of exclusive breast feeding among working class women. This study is based on breast-feeding and working mothers in College of Education Ekiadolor-Benin. Questionnaire were constructed and distributed to 150 respondents. Data was analyzed using percentage. Breast-feeding has been nature’s best and easiest way of feeding infants with milk formula. There are breast-feeding mothers in the College of Education, Ekiadolor (COEBEN). Milk is nutritious and protective to the infant. They courser immunity on babies most mother do not like to breast feed their infants. The government should establish baby friendly centres in some strategies places to enable mothers’ breastfeed their babies during office hour. Proper education of breast feeding should be given to expectant mothers at clinic and maternity homes by the nurses and midwives. Lastly, working mothers in College of Education should be encouraged to breast feed their babies up to the maximum limits given by world health organization.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Background to the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Research questions

Scope of the study

Limitation of the study

Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

General problems militating against breast feeding among working mothers  

Factors that discourage breast feeding

Effects of breast feeding on mothers and infants

Measures of control to breast feeding

Importance of breast feeding

Benefits of breast feeding to the environment and the society

CHAPTER THREE

Research design

Population of the study

Sample of the study

Instrumentation

Validation of instrument

Method of data collection

Method of data analysis   

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation of data and discussion of results

Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and recommendation

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

REFERENCE    

APPENDIX (QUESTIONNAIRE) 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The indigenous person of Nigeria has some certain ideas which formed the basis of their system of values. This system of values is manifested or expressed in all aspect of the life including the breast feeding of infants. Breast-feeding has been the recognized natural process of providing the most adequate nutrition for the baby. With the advent of Western civilization certain aspect of our indigenous culture were bastardized. With the introduction of feeding bottles, which was to assist the working mothers, practices now embraced by all mothers was seen as modernization in feeding babies. In view of this background, we want to look carefully into the concept of Breast-feeding of the infant child. Among the working class in the College of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin.

Breast-feeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female breast that is through location rather than from a feeding bottle or other containers. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. It is recommended that mother’s breast feed for six months or more without the addition of infant formula, solid food or water. Mothers are advised to continue breast-feeding for at least a year. Human breast milk is the healthiest form of milk for babies. Here are few exceptions, such as when the mother is taking certain drugs or infected with human lymph tropic virus, human immune deficiency virus (HIV), if not taking ARVS or has active untreated tuberculosis. Breast-feeding promotes health and helps to prevent diseases, artificial feeding is associated with more deaths from diarrhea in infants in both developing and developed countries.

Experts agree that breastfeeding is beneficial and have concerns about artificial formulas but there are conflicting views about how long exclusive breast feeding remains beneficial. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academic of Pediatrics (AAP) emphasize the value of breast feedings for mothers as well as children. Both recommend exclusive breast feeding for the first six months of life. The American Academic of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that this be followed by supplemented breast feeding for at least one year. While WHO (2001) Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. The optimal deviation of exclusive breast feeding, recommends that supplemented breast feeding continues up to two years or more. While recognizing the superiority of breast feeding regulating authorities also work to minimize the risks of artificial feeding.

In Edo State, it was suggested that baby care centers be established close to the working mother’s places of work to enable them to breast feed their babies from time to time.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Breast-feeding has been the natural and best way of feeding infant time immemorial. This important and natural mode of infant nutrition has been subjected to ridicule the state affair, may well be as a result of mis- formation and ignorance and bottle feeding has replaced breast feeding. This trend is most outstanding among literate or working mothers

This statement of the problem of this story is to research on breast feeding habit of working mothers in College of Education Ekiadolor at Ovia North East Local Government Area. This research is also to found out solution to the following research questions.

1.     Are there working mothers in Colben?

2.     How often do their babies feed?

3.     Whether breast-feeding adopted by mothers in this Local Government Area is encouraged?

4.     What could be responsible for the present practice in the Local Government Area as regards to breast feeding?

5.     What effect does the present practice has on both the mothers and children in the Local Government Area?

6.     What is the control measures adopted for the present practice in the Local Government Area?

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 

The researcher’s work is centred on working mothers in colben and their breast feeding habit. The main aim of carrying out this study therefore is to:

1.     Critically examine the concept of breast feeding

2.     Find the positive and negative effects of breast feeding to working mothers and their infants.

3.     Identify the problems of breast feeding among working mothers in Colben.

4.     Proffer or recommend possible solutions to the problems.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

In view of the present problem of working mothers and breast feeding and the dangers of inadequate breast feeding and the adverse effect on mothers and infants, the research study will help the individual mothers, physical education administration, health workers and the entire local government area, especially for those mothers who because of ignorance or selfish interest do not want improvement on adequate breast feeding of the infants. The findings and recommendations of this research are also expected to help the state and the local government area in drawing plans to improve on the breast feeding practices and working mothers.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In this study, certain research questions are needed as they are related to the problem. The research questions are stated as follows:

1.     Are there working mothers in Colben?

2.     Are they aware of the benefits of breast feeding to themselves and their infants?

3.     Are there effects of breast feeding on nursing mothers and the babies?  

4.     Does the working mother make use of bottle feeding more than breast milk?

5.     Is there any baby care centre in Colben?

6.     Are there poor/bad attitude of mother towards breast feeding?

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The problems of breast sfeeding are indeed a universal one. As a matter of fact, I intended to deal extensively with this study for this sis very important in the development of infant, and to the society. However the study is limited to working mothers in colben such as the female lecturers, health workers, female non-academic staff etc.  

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Breast-feeding: This is the process of a woman feeding her baby with the milk from her breast.

Lactation: Lactation is the production of milk from the breast after giving birth.

Nutrition: This is the process of supplying and receiving nourishment.

HIV: Is a virus which reduces people resistance to illness and can cause Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV is an abbreviation for human Immunodeficiency virus.

 

 

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177 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

CHALLENGES OF EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING AMONG WORKING CLASS WOMEN

ABSTRACT

This work discusses challenges of exclusive breast feeding among working class women. This study is based on breast-feeding and working mothers in College of Education Ekiadolor-Benin. Questionnaire were constructed and distributed to 150 respondents. Data was analyzed using percentage. Breast-feeding has been nature’s best and easiest way of feeding infants with milk formula. There are breast-feeding mothers in the College of Education, Ekiadolor (COEBEN). Milk is nutritious and protective to the infant. They courser immunity on babies most mother do not like to breast feed their infants. The government should establish baby friendly centres in some strategies places to enable mothers’ breastfeed their babies during office hour. Proper education of breast feeding should be given to expectant mothers at clinic and maternity homes by the nurses and midwives. Lastly, working mothers in College of Education should be encouraged to breast feed their babies up to the maximum limits given by world health organization.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Background to the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Research questions

Scope of the study

Limitation of the study

Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

General problems militating against breast feeding among working mothers  

Factors that discourage breast feeding

Effects of breast feeding on mothers and infants

Measures of control to breast feeding

Importance of breast feeding

Benefits of breast feeding to the environment and the society

CHAPTER THREE

Research design

Population of the study

Sample of the study

Instrumentation

Validation of instrument

Method of data collection

Method of data analysis   

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation of data and discussion of results

Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and recommendation

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

REFERENCE    

APPENDIX (QUESTIONNAIRE) 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The indigenous person of Nigeria has some certain ideas which formed the basis of their system of values. This system of values is manifested or expressed in all aspect of the life including the breast feeding of infants. Breast-feeding has been the recognized natural process of providing the most adequate nutrition for the baby. With the advent of Western civilization certain aspect of our indigenous culture were bastardized. With the introduction of feeding bottles, which was to assist the working mothers, practices now embraced by all mothers was seen as modernization in feeding babies. In view of this background, we want to look carefully into the concept of Breast-feeding of the infant child. Among the working class in the College of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin.

Breast-feeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female breast that is through location rather than from a feeding bottle or other containers. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. It is recommended that mother’s breast feed for six months or more without the addition of infant formula, solid food or water. Mothers are advised to continue breast-feeding for at least a year. Human breast milk is the healthiest form of milk for babies. Here are few exceptions, such as when the mother is taking certain drugs or infected with human lymph tropic virus, human immune deficiency virus (HIV), if not taking ARVS or has active untreated tuberculosis. Breast-feeding promotes health and helps to prevent diseases, artificial feeding is associated with more deaths from diarrhea in infants in both developing and developed countries.

Experts agree that breastfeeding is beneficial and have concerns about artificial formulas but there are conflicting views about how long exclusive breast feeding remains beneficial. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academic of Pediatrics (AAP) emphasize the value of breast feedings for mothers as well as children. Both recommend exclusive breast feeding for the first six months of life. The American Academic of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that this be followed by supplemented breast feeding for at least one year. While WHO (2001) Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. The optimal deviation of exclusive breast feeding, recommends that supplemented breast feeding continues up to two years or more. While recognizing the superiority of breast feeding regulating authorities also work to minimize the risks of artificial feeding.

In Edo State, it was suggested that baby care centers be established close to the working mother’s places of work to enable them to breast feed their babies from time to time.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Breast-feeding has been the natural and best way of feeding infant time immemorial. This important and natural mode of infant nutrition has been subjected to ridicule the state affair, may well be as a result of mis- formation and ignorance and bottle feeding has replaced breast feeding. This trend is most outstanding among literate or working mothers

This statement of the problem of this story is to research on breast feeding habit of working mothers in College of Education Ekiadolor at Ovia North East Local Government Area. This research is also to found out solution to the following research questions.

1.     Are there working mothers in Colben?

2.     How often do their babies feed?

3.     Whether breast-feeding adopted by mothers in this Local Government Area is encouraged?

4.     What could be responsible for the present practice in the Local Government Area as regards to breast feeding?

5.     What effect does the present practice has on both the mothers and children in the Local Government Area?

6.     What is the control measures adopted for the present practice in the Local Government Area?

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 

The researcher’s work is centred on working mothers in colben and their breast feeding habit. The main aim of carrying out this study therefore is to:

1.     Critically examine the concept of breast feeding

2.     Find the positive and negative effects of breast feeding to working mothers and their infants.

3.     Identify the problems of breast feeding among working mothers in Colben.

4.     Proffer or recommend possible solutions to the problems.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

In view of the present problem of working mothers and breast feeding and the dangers of inadequate breast feeding and the adverse effect on mothers and infants, the research study will help the individual mothers, physical education administration, health workers and the entire local government area, especially for those mothers who because of ignorance or selfish interest do not want improvement on adequate breast feeding of the infants. The findings and recommendations of this research are also expected to help the state and the local government area in drawing plans to improve on the breast feeding practices and working mothers.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In this study, certain research questions are needed as they are related to the problem. The research questions are stated as follows:

1.     Are there working mothers in Colben?

2.     Are they aware of the benefits of breast feeding to themselves and their infants?

3.     Are there effects of breast feeding on nursing mothers and the babies?  

4.     Does the working mother make use of bottle feeding more than breast milk?

5.     Is there any baby care centre in Colben?

6.     Are there poor/bad attitude of mother towards breast feeding?

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The problems of breast sfeeding are indeed a universal one. As a matter of fact, I intended to deal extensively with this study for this sis very important in the development of infant, and to the society. However the study is limited to working mothers in colben such as the female lecturers, health workers, female non-academic staff etc.  

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Breast-feeding: This is the process of a woman feeding her baby with the milk from her breast.

Lactation: Lactation is the production of milk from the breast after giving birth.

Nutrition: This is the process of supplying and receiving nourishment.

HIV: Is a virus which reduces people resistance to illness and can cause Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV is an abbreviation for human Immunodeficiency virus.

 

 

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177 days ago 0 Comments Short URL

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

This work discusses the significance of early childhood educational facilities on the academic performance of early childhood education in Nigeria. A hundred and twenty questionnaires were shared amongst teachers and parents of selected schools.

 

Primary and secondary data were used the analysis. Both frequency distribution and regression analysis were used. Interviews and surveys were also conducted.

 

It was observed therefore that educational facilities have a positive significance on the academic performance of early childhood education. Also, there is a positive relationship between educational facilities and the academic performance of early childhood education.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study

1.2      Statement of the Research Problem

1.3      Objectives of the Study

1.4      Significance of the Study

1.5      Research Questions

1.6      Research Hypothesis

1.7      Conceptual and Operational Definition

1.8      Assumptions

1.9      Limitations of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1      Sources of Literature

2.2      The Review

2.3      Summary of Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1      Research Method

3.2      Research Design

3.3      Research Sample

3.4      Measuring Instrument

3.5      Data Collection

3.6      Data Analysis

3.7      Expected Result

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1      Data Analysis

4.2      Results

4.3      Discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1      Summary

5.2      Recommendations for Further Study

Bibliography

 

 

 

 

 

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194 days ago 0 Comments Short URL